Resin is a natural product that has multiple applications and is highly demanded in the chemical industry. As a non-timber forest product, exploitation of the abundant pine resin in Tunisian forests (50% of the forest area) can contribute to a bioeconomy and can generate additional income for forest populations.
“Aromas del encinar - AROEN”, in Spanish language, literally means “aromas from the holm oak forests” and is a family-run project born with the aim to enhance the sustainable management of this ecosystem, very frequent in the Madrid municipality. In fact, this ecosystem, in the last decades, has been often abandoned due to low profitability. The project is based on strong resource management and biodiversity conservation plan, promoting wild-collected aromatic and medicinal plant goods.
The aim of the guarantee label is to protect chestnuts designated under the "Castaña del Bierzo" designation of origin and the characteristics defined in its regulations.
Τhe last 15 years, mushrooms became valuable part of Greek consumers’ diet. New mushroom plants have launched, special cultivated varieties ( Lentinula, Hericium, etc.) have been considerably growing and many young peoplemake a living hunting truffles and wild mushrooms . Αfter the economic crisis of 2009, people living in big cities returned to their villages starting business in forestry or agriculture. “Dirfis mushrooms” was established in 2003 in Mount Dirfis (Euboea) by two agronomists-mycologists (Agricultural University of Athens), Lefteris Lachouvaris and Thanassis Mastrogiannis, representing a success story of the hidden potential of the mushroom and truffles related activities.
Nectariss aims to create the ultimate truffle flavour from real truffles, addressing three main problems of truffle products:
- the lack of authenticity of existing truffle aromas that are mainly prepared either synthetically or from seafood and vegetables;
- the poor diversity of existing commercial truffle flavours (only few compared to hundreds of truffle sorts);
- the lack of geographical traceability in truffle products and the consequent consumers' misconceptions that truffles exclusively come from few regions (i.e. Alba, Périgord), when they are really valuable resources of most Mediterranean countries.
City of Alba (Piedmont region, Italy) and the surrounding area, the Langhe and Roero are well known for wine production and some local gastronomic peculiarities, such as white truffle. Unfortunately, over the past 25 years, against a continuing increase in the value of farming products (grapes for wine and hazelnut for chocolate and sweet) and a consequent expansion of cultivated surface, there has been a 30% reduction in truffle-growing areas. “Save the Truffle” aims to promote alternative activities for recovering old truffle-beds and planting new truffle-generating plants.
During the last years there has been a growing interest from young people to get involved in the AMP exploitation business. The rich Greek flora and the plenty of abandoned agricultural fields in rural areas offer a great potential in this direction. However, most of the young farmers/entrepreneurs didn’t have a relative experience in the field and there has been many fails and disappointments.
The valorisation of local natural resin in high added value niche markets is a pillar of the French strategy for the revival of the sector. Local natural resin has many advantages over competing products: better quality, generates local jobs, enhances the value of the local forest resource, has a lower environmental impact, etc. These advantages are compatible with the markets sought after but they must be recognised. Can a label allow the local natural resin to stand out from the competition?
The aim is to present a methodology that allows the optimal management of Pinus pinea stands to be determined from an economic perspective when both cone and timber production are considered. Thus, a simulation-optimisation method that implements the stochastic masting model together with an optimisation algorithm would help forest managers to optimise stand management under different price scenarios and market conditions.
Hence , the challenge is to integrate a cone yield model into a simulation-optimisation system which is capable to predict expected cone harvests and seed yields in a certain year, based on the climatic conditions of previous years.
The Natural History Museum of Meteora and Mushroom Museum has been established in December 2014, in Kalambaka, Greece. It is a private museum that stems from the collaboration of three people sharing the same interests about nature. The Museum’s collections consist of about 350 species of animals and 250 species of mushrooms and their natural habitats that are presented into dioramas. Beyond its general objectives (to highlight natural heritage, enhance environmental awareness, organize educational activities etc.), the Museum aims to focus on the closest relationship among mushrooms, nature, and the people, but also to highlight their unknown, but high nutritional value.
In 2005, Kanela & Garyfallo was founded in the village of Vitsa, in the mountainous region of Zagori in NW Greece, as a thematic restaurant specializing in edible mushrooms. Considering that Greece is a country where mushrooms are considered largely unsafe and / or unsavory, this was a bold move. The objective difficulties in turning this bold move to a success story were acknowledged from the start and the proprietor set out as his objective to educate the public and rely on the positive personal experience of his clients to overcome prejudice and recognize the value of an important local resource.
A new technology of extracting the fixed (non-volatile) oil of Pistacia lentiscus for the benefit of rural women
This work aims the improvement of lentisk oil extraction in order to enable rural women to improve their working conditions and their incomes through the sale of this oil.
On the other hand, this work aims to make women aware of the importance of conserving the natural heritage of their region and, to encourage them to take positive ownership of their environment.
To solve the problems raised by wild mushroom collection, Jacques Hazera, a forester from the Landes (South West of France), set up a real harvesting permit that has worked perfectly since autumn 1999.
The introduction of this harvesting permit has several objectives :
1. To allow those who wish to pick mushrooms in a peaceful environment
2. To create the conditions for a serene atmosphere in the woods
3. To prevent overexploitation of mushroom resources
4. To provide the owner with a fair compensation for the transfer of his "natural fruits"
Anthyllis barba-jovis is a rare evergreen shrub belonging to the family of Fabaceae and could be found in different habitats, especially along steep rocky cliffs. It is an endemic species originating from the west-central regions of the Mediterranean basin. It’s located in France, Italy, Croatia, Algeria, and Tunisia and grows on low altitudes of the Mediterranean littoral rocks. The main objective of this work is to control the seed propagation techniques of Anthyllis barba-Jovis L.
A territorial and multi-stakeholder organization for sustainable harvesting of Arnica in its mountain stubble habitat (Hautes Vosges)
A multi-stakeholder approach has been initiated in the Hautes Vosges on stubble in the Markstein - Grand Ballon sector to preserve the resource of Arnica montana ssp montana and its natural habitat (the "high stubble"), to maintain the economic issues that represents its picking, while reconciling the other uses of high altitude grasslands where this plant grows : cattle grazing, grass harvest, outdoor sports (skiing, gliding).
A trademark for local specialties, including wild bilberries, in a territory famous for parmesan cheese
Emilia Romagna is well known for some gastronomic excellences with European P.O.D. and P.G.I. labels, such as parmesan cheese and balsamic vinegar. However, many other local agri-food supply chains, not recognized with specific labels, don’t find adequate visibility in the gastronomic offer of the Region. In order to raise awareness also on these local products, the Modena chamber of commerce decided to create the label "Traditions and Flavours of Modena" that is used to support the promotion of niche gastronomic products, such as wild bilberries of the Modena Apennines.
Explore options in Pinus pinaster stand management with adapted methods to improve compatibility between resin and timber uses.
The aim is to verify whether the 20 cm wide resin tapping wounds, wider than the traditional 12 cm, can lead to an increase in the annual resin production per tree and if this tapping method is compatible with the traditional wood use in Galicia.
In recent decades, new cork oak plantation areas have been established in Portugal, not only in the traditional areas of distribution of the species but also in the northern parts. Historical records show that the species was formerly present here, and climatic thresholds suggest a possible occurrence. Cork oak site productivity, assessed through site index, was modelled in relation to soil and climate variables. The models were developed to estimate and map the site index value along the cork oak potential distribution area in Portugal.
Adding knowledge to the impact and ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, on stone pine
There is still a substantial lack of knowledge about the effective impact and the ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglosus occidentalis, on the Mediterranean stone pine. Thus, the overall objective was to characterize the impact and study the ecology of this invasive insect in stone pine by (1) characterizing its damage on seeds with shell; (2) testing its preference between stone pine and other Mediterranean pines; (3) evaluating damage in Stone pine seed orchards under different management strategies and (4) inferring invasion routes of this insect in the Iberian Peninsula using genetic and field data.
Adopting a common protocol for selling cork through tendering procedures in public cork oak woodlands in Sardinia (Italy)
The aim is to provide a standard reference model to be used by public forest owners of cork oak woodlands to sell cork, both on the tree or in cork piles, through public tendering systems in Italy. The documents represent a good practice developed by the Agency Forestas on the basis of its long term experience in cork tendering systems that may be useful for harmonizing cork selling procedures across the country.
Adoption of a common protocol for describing cork oak woodlands in Sardinia (Italy) for planning and management purposes
The objective of the protocol is the adoption of a common standard for the description of pure or mixed stands with cork oaks for planning and/or management purposes. The aim is ultimately to contribute to the creation of coherent and complete information bases at the regional level, to improve cork oak forest planning, and thereby foster their development, in accordance with the indications of the Regional Forestry Law (Law no. 8/2016 art. 33) and of regional sectorial regulations on cork (Law no. 4/1994).
The main purpose of the project is the development of sylviculture combining wood and fungal production. It also consists in developing, testing and popularizing technical itineraries that conciliate these two issues. In addition, there is the need to understand and analyze the mushroom value chain, and to determine the possible ways to organize collection and marketing of these products.
In order to attract new customers, especially foreign buyers, it is necessary to move away from the usual things and take a step forward. The advancement of technology enables customers to easily access the Internet and inform themselves about various products, and can easily buy it through the web store. It is therefore important to provide customers with something new that is not so common and to tell them the story of the product and to provide them with an overall experience that will go beyond just buying the product.
Truffle hunting in Istria began in the mid 20th century when the first written records were recorded about it. Initially, the local population started collecting truffles as it was actually a great addition to their home budget. At this time, the final destination of the truffles were mainly the foreign markets. More recently, the truffle hunters realized that the value can be increased if the product was placed on the domestic market. Thus, in the 1990s, truffle promotion was promoted as a valued product and they quickly realized that diversification of the offer was needed and that additional product value was needed.
Analysis and management of main ecosystem services and multi-functionality of Sardinian cork oak woods
The work analyses the multifunctionality of cork oak forests and the benefits in terms of ecosystem services (CICES 2018, MAES 2017) in Sardinia. Supply, regulation and cultural services are assessed, also analysing identity, landscape, anthropological and historical aspects. The main factors that threaten the preservation of Cultural Ecosystem Sergices (CES) are taken into account. A set of actions and measures are proposed, consistent with identity and cultural values, for the recovery, conservation and enhancement of Natural and Cultural Capital of cork oak woods.
Along with the latest advances in the resin sector for improving resin production, such as forest tree breeding, innovative harvesting technology, etc, prescribed fire is also analysed as a tool for increasing resin yield in Pinus pinaster stands. The results of this study are summarized below.
The ultimate objectives of this work were to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants agents in the food industry. This study is the first to investigate secondary metabolites and biological activities of barks and leaves of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. subsp. angustifolia (Oleaceae), Tunisian native tree, from two provenances (Béja and Nefza) were investigated using two solvents extracts (ethanol and distilled water).
Pine species are considered as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Pinus nigra Arnold is one of the most known medicinal plants in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to determine, for the first time, the bioactive compounds such as the total phenols, flavonoids and tannins and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of needles collected from nineteen samples corresponding to different provenances of black pine from different regions which have been planted and grown in Northwestern Tunisia.
In order to contribute to greater market transparency, APFC - Associação de Produtores Florestais, conducts an impartial sampling and issues since 2015 a press release on pine cone average yields in the Coruche region (Portugal).
For the fifth consecutive year, APFC has used a methodology for sampling the cone quality at 8 sites throughout the municipality of Coruche in order to represent the entire area of pine production.
Each sample has 10 cones harvested randomly from each of 30 trees per site. The cones are weighted before opening, the inshell pine nuts are removed mechanically and shelled manually (sample of 2 kg). The kernels are weighed at a reference humidity (9%) and referred to the cone weight.
The selection of forest species and the analysis of their behavior variability, considering the main environmental factors, remains a major concern for the forester in Tunisia. This work is prepared to answer the following question: for reforestation needs, which is the most suitable species to reach a sustainable and productive plantation? The answer can be provided in the elimination trials in the arboretum. The arboretums offer an ideal experimental support to know the requirements of the forest species and to make a selection in favor of the best adapted and the most efficient species.
The purpose of the traceability system is to link the final product made from aromatic or medicinal plants to the place of origin, specie of origin, method of harvesting, harvester, processor and producer. By having a QR code placed on a particular end product, the consumer can easily obtain more information than those described on the label of the product, and can choose which product is most relevant to their needs.
In Tunisia, handicrafts based on local wood are mostly from olive wood. Due to its physical, mechanical and aesthetic qualities, olive wood is highly sought and appreciated by artisans and buyers. In front of the growing demand for this wood, local people do not hesitate to resort to illicit cuts to satisfy the needs of the market. The objective of this study is to search for forest species offering wood qualities that rival those of olive wood and that can be valorized for artisanal use.
The objective of this study is to determine the proportion of cork that micro-agglomerated and synthetic cork stoppers should contain to assure that their mechanical properties are similar to those of a natural cork stopper. The properties that characterize the mechanical behaviour of the stoppers in the corking and uncorking operations are: compression, relaxation and extraction.
Assessment of resin tapping in pine forests of Castilla y León considering social and environmental values
The pine forests on the sandy plains of inner Spain represent a singular habitat and ecosystem in very poor site conditions. In addition to economic revenue from sustainable biological resources, resin tapping provides other ecological and social benefits from these forests. The present study, resulting from the SUDOE project SustForest, analyses the inclusion of these factors in the assessment of resin resources.
The main objective of the present investigation is to explore the knowledge and the best practices of resin extraction technics in rural areas and marginal environment in order to promote the live condition of the population in these different regions by providing secure incomes and good working conditions. This could lead to the best evaluation of the good performance of the three most important pine species in North-western of Tunisia to resin extraction.
Barcoding is an important tool towards the solution of traceability issues. Plant.ID is a collaborative network within Europe and addresses the challenges of plant identification in 15 different projects. We focus on common edible, poisonous, allergenic and pharmaceutical plants of the Greek flora. Through sequencing of barcoding regions and metabarcoding techniques, specific barcoding markers will be developed to be used either with PCR and/or with the High Resolution Melting Analysis for species-specific identification.
The sulla is a herbaceous bi or multiannual Mediterranean forage species. It’s used as hay, ensilage, or pasture. The sulla is a species that valorizes poor soils and helps in restoring their fertility. Also, it’s a useful plant regarding restoring and promoting eroded soil. The main objective of this work is to master the techniques of multiplication and conservation of this species.
The BIJOU project objectives are the following ones :
- Development of molecular tools to identify the origin of truffles, the stage of maturity, in correlation with the organoleptic qualities of Burgundy truffle.
- Development of evaluation and production improvement tools in truffle orchards.
- Study of the ecology of the Burgundy truffle in natural environments, and the influence of forest management on it.
The third component of the project is only developed in this factsheet.The objective is to better understand which natural environments favour Burgundy truffle, to improve truffle stations knowledge and forest stands typology, and finally to quantify the production of the studied stands.
The main objective of Biocastanea is the sustainability of chestnut orchards as a natural, cultural, economic and landscape element, through the transfer of technical and scientific knowledge to the productive sector. Furthermore, it aims to make chestnut growing one of the main pillars of sustainable development. To generate debate, analysis and exchange of new proposals for the development of the sector. To maintain the relationship between culture-biodiversity and economy present in the chestnut tree.
The purpose of the study was to develop empirical models for predicting the fresh weight yield of the target species Boletus edulis, one of the most appreciated fungal species worldwide. The objective of the models is to identify the influential factors that drive the sporocarp emergence. The modeling process was applied to the “Pinar Grande” area (Soria province, Spain), where we analyzed fifteen years of mushroom data continuously recorded in eighteen permanent plots.
Wild plant ingredients are in thousands of products we consume every day: pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, supplements and wellbeing products, food, spices, drinks and also homewares. Wild collection (WC) is an important economic activity for some of the most impoverished communities. In addition, it often takes place in important wildlife habitats and reservoirs of biodiversity. Then, WC activity is facing several environmental and social challenges. Different organisations are certifying this activity, but with different purposes.
Characterization of Melia azedarach. L (leaves and fruits) and their insecticidal effects (Aphis punicea)
Melia azedarach, also called Lilas of indes, classified under the family of Meliaceae. It is an ornamental tree native to India, presented in several countries of tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Tunisia. The objective of this study is the valorization of plant extracts in the manufacture of organic products to minimize the import of chemicals to human health and the environment.
European chestnut has a great economic impact in the rural economy of mountainous regions of southwest Europe. The main threats for this important crop are pests and diseases, being the most important root rot, blight disease and gall wasp. Root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinamomi (Pc), is the most severe disease which impact negatively the production of chestnut orchards, which are important for its edible nuts.
The main objective is to release a new product to the market: new genotypes with improved resistance to Pc, selected from the breeding program on course, to be used as rootstocks, with compatibility with nut varieties.
Chestnut orchards are one of the most profitable crops in the Montesinho Natural Park (PNM) area, with chestnuts representing a large share of many families' income. Besides the fruit, other products make it a multifunctional culture, among them, honey. This and other beekeeping derived goods represent a way to value the existing flora and to promote a territory with reduced harmful human impact (e.g. pollution). This product is probably what best characterizes this natural park, revealing the intricacies of this region on its flavour.
The objective of the project was to implement in France a classical biological program against the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Dk), using releases of the exotic parasitoid Torymus sinensis. The expected outcome of this project were (i) the permanent establishment of the parasitoid and (ii) an efficient and long-term control of the pest.
The thickness of cork oak trees varies highly, even when they are located in the same geographical location or stand. The objective was to research how climate variables affect different trees within the same site, for which precipitation and temperature variables were considered. The response variable was the cork growth index (cgi) – the cork thickness of the first eight complete growth years were measured after boiling. The differences between trees were characterised by nine different cork thickness quantiles, from lower (thinnest cork) to higher (thickest cork).
Some experiments conducted at the Institute of Agri-Food Research and Technology of Catalonia (IRTA), aimed at evaluating the productive capacity of Stone pine clones from different Spanish provenance regions (PR) under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heideman attack, are presented. This pest is severely affecting Stone pine stands in the Iberian Peninsula, hence, identifying genotypes less susceptible to L. occidentalis attack is an important line of research in this area.
Among essential oils, Eucalyptus oil, is one of the most useful as it is easily extractable commercially (industrial value) and possesses a wide range of desirable properties worth exploiting for pest management. Eucalyptus oils are mainly extracted from leaves which can be attacked by gall wasps as Ophelimus maskelli. Induced galls can affect the essential oil production.
This work aims to determine the role of the parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon in the biological control of its host O. maskelli.
Medicago arborea, a naturalized species, was selected for its pastoral and high ecological interest: it is a nitrogen fixer and cold, drought, and salt-tolerant plant species (Sibole et al. 2003). It tolerates frost conditions and low temperatures as well as drought conditions and high temperatures. It’s an important species regarding its symbiosis with nitrogen fixation bacteria. The species had always demonstrated its importance as a forage species and its quality in feeding the animal. The main objective of this work is to master the techniques for multiplying and conserving this species.
Sideritis sp. are among the most overhavested in Greece and many wild populations are threatened. It is used for the preparation of herbal tea, known as Mountain tea which is widely consumed due to its properties known from folk medicine. The traditional use of 4 Sideritis sp. has been adopted by HMPC in a herbal monograph (1) and several studies have been reported on its pharmacological properties. The overharvesting has put a pressure onto its populations. The MOUNTEA-CONSE project (2) aimed at the development of conservation and sustainable exploitation activities for Sideritis populations.
Chestnut is a seasonal nut only produced in some regions of Portugal. It is a product whose value is very scattered across the various elements of the marketing chain, with little, and very concentrated in time, internal consumption. It is, therefore, vital to increase and retain its added value and make this market less dependent on the seasonality of the fruit. One way is by promoting new forms of consumption in and out of season, through the processing and innovative uses of the chestnut.
The role and importance of organic production lie in the sustainable management of natural resources (preserves soil fertility, flora and fauna, water and atmosphere), forbids the use of chemical means of protection and fertilizers, restoring balance to nature and thus preserves biodiversity, encourages rural development and facilitates the development of small family farms, contributes to the development of eco-tourism and eco-villages and thus links agricultural, tourism and craft activities.
The production of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) has interesting growth prospects, but the atomization of farms hinders their business development, having to bet on a cooperative model, that facilitates the transformation and commercialisation. This is an issue that affecting both agricultural production and wild exploitation. This factsheet presents the needs of the stakeholders and some success stories.
Tzoumakers is an open lab for communities to cooperatively design and manufacture tools for small-scale agricultural production. Our vision is to create such sites in both villages and cities where citizens may seize technology into their own hands. These sites may be supported by municipalities and/or by multi-stakeholder cooperatives.
In the life cycle of cork, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) gases are released from biological material combustion or decomposition as well as from burning fossil fuels. The biogenic carbon emissions from forest-based products are usually not included because they are released into the atmosphere during the processing and end-of-life stages. The carbon footprint for the cork sector should be considered at different stages, from forest management activities, across the manufacturing processes and product distribution, to the product end-of-life.
Improving the competitiveness of the cork oak producers, by improving the quality of the production process and the sustainability of the cork oak forest, by introducing new innovative methods and practices applied to the various stages of the production process and commercialization of the raw material, are essential to guarantee the vitality in the sector.
The profitability of the debarking, transportation and storage operations by promoting or increasing the efficiency of the processes along the potential value chain, with bring greater valorization of the raw material and improvements at the commercialization stage.
It is not possible to separate the cumulative effect of: climate change, soil conditions, cultural practices and the presence of biotic agents, the way the trees die, due to progressive decrepitude or sudden death, as well as the physiological processes involved that are necessarily different and must be treated differently when deciding on the urgency and the period of dead trees felling, the management of the wood material, forestry residues and subsequent options for afforestation, natural regeneration or conversion to another species.
This factsheet aims to highlight some of the pests that cause mortality and the different management of the dead trees according to the biotic agent present.
The cork oak forest management involves interventions in the understory with the following objectives: reduction of the fire risk, operationality of the cork harvesting, promotion of cork oak recruitment and reduction of competition for water and nutrients between trees, herbs and shrubs. The techniques currently available for the forest producer to carry out these operations are: the practice of grazing and / or mechanized interventions (harrowing, shrub cutter, shredding). The choice among several mechanical techniques should consider cork oak sustainability and the potential impacts over soil & plants.
This document presents the methodology used by the Extremadura Scientific and Technological Research Centre (CICYTEX) for assessing the quality of piled cork. Once the cork has been stripped from the trees, the planks are arranged in ‘piles’ prior to transportation to the factory. Assessing the cork in these piles is particularly useful in forests with difficult access, where direct assessment on the tree is not viable.
CULTURTRUF project : Effect of cultural techniques on water balance in truffle orchards and truffle life cycle
CulturTruf was financed by FranceAgriMer (French Agriculture Ministry) from 2016 to 2019. The objective of this project is to understand how water balance, truffle production, and soil truffle DNA evolve in different orchards of T. melanosporum, T. aestivum, T. aestivum var. uncinatum according to technical itineraries adapted to different climates. The aim is to optimize water management in truffle plantations by coupling basic and applied research approaches. In this sense, this project fully responds to a strong demand from the sector to adapt truffle production to climate change.
The data sheets constitute a small technical manual with the precise information so that traditional blacksmiths and small metallurgical workshops can make the tools used in Europe in the work of resin tapping using the method of bark chipping with stimulation, also known as American method.
This work seeks to analyze the causes of the decay processes observed in mixed pine forests of Pinus pinaster in Central Spain at its dry limit. This decay process is not exclusive to the area studied. If the causes of this decline are identified, better informed decisions can be made that lead to more efficient and sustainable forest management.
Delineation of seed collection zones based on environmental and genetic characteristics for Quercus suber L. in Sardinia, Italy
The main objective of the study is assessing the areas where Quercus suber (cork oak) seeds (acorns) should be collected, taking into account both environmental and genetic variables, identifying uniform climatic areas and investigating the genetic diversity among populations at the regional scale. Combining the two factors, areas of interest for valorising the available germplasm can be identified.
Design and implementation of a new productive model around the chestnut tree as a rural development model in El Bierzo (Castile and Leon)
The main objective was the structuring of the sectorial productive system in one of the main chestnut growing regions in Spain, El Bierzo (Castilla y León). As secondary objectives: Improvement of the phytosanitary status of the chestnut groves. Quantitative and qualitative increase of the production, productivity and profitability. Creation of employment. Normalization of the productive activity. Creation of wealth and equitable distribution. Corporate social responsibility.
An innovative solution to cork ‘off-flavour’ developed by the company DIAM is presented.
Wild species must be recovered and their uses incorporated daily as normal. We must document the traditional uses of vegetation and promote actions aimed at citizens to publicise them. The research and dissemination axes are essential, but they must be accompanied by the development of business models that also allow the commercialisation of products. In Catalonia (Spain) there are several associations and companies that work to value them, either in the gastronomic field or as a tourist activity.
The main response of natural Aleppo pine trees to drought has been studied in three sites on the North-western of Tunisia, in order to assess their capacity to adapt to climate change and overcome the water challenge. This research was based on the evaluation of some physiological traits (xylem conductivity, water potential..), the soil moisture, the water content, and the foliar gas exchange (photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance).
Greece is a country with dramatic geological relief which makes it one of the richest in biodiversity and habitat types countries in Europe. So far over 100 fungal species with below ground fruitbodies have been discovered in Greece, among them 13 new species for Science, confirming high diversity also in fungi. As we have just began to explore fungi with subterranean fruiting bodies, we are confident that many new species will be recorded in Greece in the near future. The protection of forest ecosystems is vital for hypogeous fungi, such as valuable truffles' conservation.
Effect of Short and Long Term Irrigation with Treated Wastewater on Chemical Composition and Herbicidal Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Essential Oils
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of treated wastewater short and long-term irrigation on essential oil composition from E. camaldulensis Dehn in order to detect allelopathic impacts on seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus hybridus L, Chenopodium album L, Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv and Lolium perenne L as important weeds on many crops.
In rural areas of Tunisia, the average wood consumption per household and per year is between 1.8 and 5.9 tones. The highest consumption was noted in the forest regions of Sejnane, Boussalem and Jendouba. Results show that traditional bread baking represents 60 to 70% of the percentage of wood consumed in households. With a view to satisfying the increasingly growing needs for ﬁrewood and charcoal in rural areas, we have initiated a selection research program oriented towards more intensive wood production including wood that can be used for energy purposes. In this work, we propose to compare the energy performance of 11 species of Eucalyptus.
Enhancement of Croatian forest ecosystem services through assessment of fungal diversity based on DNA barcoding with special emphasis to Tuber eastivum (summer truffle)
Enhancement of Croatian forest ecosystem services through assessment of fungal diversity based on DNA barcoding is a four-year project financed by the Croatian Science Foundation with the objective of exploring fungal diversity of Croatian forests through the DNA barcoding methods, aimed to analyze its impact on forest ecosystem services. Research institute ‘Ruđer Bošković’ from Zagreb, Croatia is the lead partner on this project that started in October, 2018.
The current exploitation of rosemary and myrtle (native species with relatively high yield of EO) occupies an important place in the forestry sector and a significant socio-economic interest. Eucalyptus trees can play a predominant and substantial role thanks to their richness in essential oils, their composition and their commercial value.
This objective necessarily involves the identification of eucalyptus EO species and the selection of the most efficient in terms of the yield of essential oils and the presence of the most dominant active compounds which are preferentially sought by the industrialists.
Essential oils value chain in Tunisian forests: Conflicts between inclusiveness and marketing performance
Identify drivers and barriers for developing the Tunisian Essential Oil market and new growth strategies to promote the sector and become more competitive in the international market.
The European Union defines, through several documents, the cultivation and collection of mushrooms and truffles as the primary product in agriculture. There are a number of measures in place in Croatia to encourage primary agricultural production, but truffle farming is not one of them. In order to offer the rural parts of Croatia new economic activity, which can be extremely profitable, it is necessary to draw up a plan for the implementation of the European Directive and to adapt the relevant laws on the basis of professional and scientific research.
- Defining a simple and reliable methodology for the quantitative evaluation of stacked cork at cork parks that will serve as a mean of controlling the quantity weighed previously,
- Create a database at each cork park to determine the weight of a cubic meter of cork reproduction.
- Train forest technicians to generalize this method on all cork parks in Tunisia from the 2020 harvest.
In the current context in which it can be perceived that climate change is already a reality, one of the issues that most concerns the different sectors dedicated to non-timber forest products (NWFP) is the long-term availability of these forest products, so that a constant supply is ensured. It is important to know the provision of NWFP at the present time in order to know or estimate their future evolution. A key tool in this regard is the National Forest Inventories (NFI). Spanish NFI are a robust, objective and comparable source of information, ideal for carrying out this type of analysis.
Eurocastanea is the consultation and representation body for professionals in the chestnut sector in the countries of the European Union, and in the European and world economy.
In addition, it
- Organizes dialogue, consultation, study and joint action among its members, representing the chestnut sector to European or other institutions.
- Contributes to the regeneration and promotion of the sector, organising the European "Eurocastanea" days and cooperation missions in the technical, scientific or economic area.
The EMI’s mission is to support the wild edible mushrooms sector in Europe. The EMI's origin relies on: a) the lack of data and reliable statistics, b) the lack of management (mycosilviculture) guidelines adapted to climate change, c) the lack of a governance and regulation system fitted for controlling collection and market globalization, among others.
For solving those shortcomings, the EMI will support stakeholders in the territorial transitions by means of exchanging good practices, research and innovation, in order to take advantage of the European Cooperation for a joint strategy in opportunities as myco-tourism, agri-food quality products and criteria for the sustainable management of mycological resources.
The success of a truffle plantation relies on the presence and abundance of T. melanosporum in the roots of the seedlings the farmers plant to obtain the crop of truffles. Yet, most farmers lack the skills to distinguish a plant with the fungus from one without it. Therefore, independent testing of the plants to be planted is critical to protect the farmers from errors or fraud in the nurseries leading to the sale of plants that will never produce truffles. Our aim was to develop a test that a trained technician could perform in a short period of time to keep the cost low.
Urtica dioica L. is an invasive plant, widespread in northern of Tunisia. This study is designed to explore the natural biological resources such as plants of agronomic and medicinal interest of Tunisia.
Evaluation of susceptibility to Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) in Castanea sativa and in hybrid cultivars
The aim is to determine different levels of sensitivity of different cultivars to the chestnut gall wasp. Among the cultivars that have been evaluated are interspecific hybrids and traditional European cultivars.
Evaluation of the biological activities of natural extract from some species of Portulaca grown in Tunisia
Purslane is known for her gastronomic and medicinal excellences effects. It is considered a miraculous plant with healing properties (Hwess.H et al., 2017). It is very used in traditional medicine, but not well exploited in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to raise awareness also on this wild plant, we have decided to compare many provenances of puslane, using maceration extraction.
The objective of this research is to evaluate the potential of remote sensing data for the modelling of mushroom yields in forests at large spatial scales. Specifically, we want to see if combining remote sensor-based data could represent more accuracy to the current models which are based on climate observations. Showing the potential of remote sensing to model mushroom yields is a first step for the future development of small-scale predictive models.
For the most part, growing lavender in Croatia comes down to small producers who make it an extra household income. Collecting lavender is the most important part of production because it provides raw material for later processing. Manual harvesting of lavender generate its yield as only the top part of the plant with the highest concentration of essential oil is harvested. The problem with mechanical harvesting is that the machine is not so precise and cannot be adjusted to collect only the top parts of the plant.
The production of medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) from wild collection or by cultivation raises environmental, social and economic issues. The demand for a wide variety of wild species is increasing with the growth of human needs and trade. There is an awareness that many wild plants are being overexploited, which many experts recommend incorporating into cropping systems, but several aspects that determine their viability have to be taken into account. An alternative is small-scale cultivation.
Nature has been the source of aromatic plants and herbs for thousands of years, and their use as medicines, enhancers of food aroma, preservatives, or cosmetics is well known from antiquity. However, the great development of animal product industry, in combination with the growing consumers’ demand for higher quality and more environmentally friendly products during the later years, led the food industry to begin to search for alternative solutions in animal nutrition. The introduction of aromatic plants as natural feed additives can be considered as one of them.
The objective of the current work is the analysis of alternative sampling methods and intensities for estimating cork value before its extraction (price per unit of weight), considering the trade-off between sampling precision and costs. The dataset includes 30 sampling clusters for each of the 6 stands, where the measurement of the tree coordinates in each plot allowed for the simulation of several sampling methods and intensities, and the comparison of the percent errors and sampling costs.
For more than 20 years, plantation and natural regeneration trials have been set up by the CRPF PACA in the Maures massif with the collaboration of volunteer forest owners. The age of some of the trials now makes it possible to obtain transferable results, to guide the management of areas favourable to the cork oak, to allow continuity of monitoring and to develop the setting up of new trials in a context of climate change to be considered.
Forest management adaptation to the production of equally worth non-wood forest products – a practical opinion
In the new context of multifuncionality, the development of management plans integrating both the wood and non-wood forest products (i.e. mushrooms and truffles) for a particular area, aiming to increase the total market value becomes a challenge. In the process of management plan formulation, additionally to the scientific knowledge, also the practical experience of collectors should be taken into consideration.
The objective of the project is to provide preliminary information, both bibliographic and ethnological, chemical, genomic, biochemical, technical and economic, in order to assess the relevance of restarting the resin extraction of forest species other than maritime pine to supply the growing societal demand for terpene biomolecules.
This project aims to assess the effects of FSC certification on the conservation of cork oak woodlands namely how certified conservation zones (areas of lower management intervention) affect oak natural regeneration, understory shrub diversity, conservation of water streamlines and associated bird diversity. In addition, at a larger scale, the project also aims to identify geographical areas of conservation value for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Resulting information will contribute to identify target areas to implement payment for ecosystem services schemes using FSC certification as a validating tool of good management practices.
The PinusResina initiative aims to identify/establish new value chains for the competitive and safe transformation and recovery of pine resin in high value-added products, with the mission of increasing the competitiveness and sustainability of Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea forest in Portugal, in particular by enhancing resin constituents for new fine chemistry markets - resin chemical industry as the main economic factor in pine ecosystems; toxicity assessment of derived products; analyze the variability of resin composition, biotransformation and the exploitable capacity of waste resulting from its exploitation; and evaluate the sustainability of new value chains.
The main objective of this guide and its booklets for each species is to provide the pickers with knowledge of specific aromatics and medicinal plants and to serve as support for their training to adopt respectful practices guaranteeing sustainable management of the natural resources.
Its construction is based on a collection of knowledge and practices of pickers, analyzed with a group of scientists with regard to sustainable resource management (threats and renewal challenges).
The objective is also to enhance the picking profession by disseminating its knowledge and know-how.
The objective is to present GOSUBER, the supra-autonomous operational group of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) in the area of Agricultural productivity and Sustainability, which aims to modernize debarking to make it more productive and improve occupational health and safety conditions. The group comprises 13 partners, including private companies, associations, research centres, universities and foundations.
In the last 15 years, there has been a strong interest in truffles in Greece due to high market prices and the ability to cultivate them. In most truffle plantations in Greece, however, the seedlings come from European countries such as Italy, France and Spain, since there is no domestic production. Taking into consideration the issues of imported plant’s adaptability, biodiversity protection and the risk of introducing unwdesired truffle species, we attempted to create the first Greek truffle trees with Tuber aestivum and T. melanosporum in Greek forest species such as oaks, hazelnuts, etc., in the region of Epirus (NW Greece).
Over the last 20 years, an unprecedented phenomenon of micophilia is recorded in Greece, accompanied by remarkable social, economic, cultural and research activity. The focus of this activity is Grevena, a small town of 13,500 inhabitants at an altitude of 530 meters at the northeastern end of the North Pindos National Park, in Western Macedonia. In recent years Grevena has been considered in the consciousness of the Greeks as synonymous with mushrooms and it is recognized today as the undisputed mushroom capital of the Balkans.
The Lavandula is an important species due to medicinal and aromatic properties. The local species population is suffering from Anthropozoic pressure improved by cutting and animal scuttling which made it essential to preserve the species population. Our work aims to test some ways of specie propagation.
Guide to the application of the territorial contract for resin tappers, an innovative institutional support formula for the natural resin sector
The autonomous resin tapper trade is precarious due to factors such as the seasonality of the activity, the fluctuation of resin prices, some resination campaigns are even below the profitability threshold, and the difficulty of accessing complementary sources of income.
To support the sustainability of the resin tapper job, this guide proposes a model of territorial contract tailored to this group of workers, which can be used by public administrations to supplement their income through the remuneration of specific commitments and recognition of the positive externalities generated.
In order to be able to follow the evolution of cork oak dieback in the French cork-producing regions in the context of climate change, the South-East Forest Health Interregional Pole has set up since 2013 an annual health monitoring network (defoliation, tree mortality, branch mortality, etc.) of 33 permanent plots of 20 trees each. The study covers the period 2013-2019.
Hot water treatment: an effective method for disinfecting chestnut scions against chestnut gall wasp
The hot water treatment (HWT) was evaluated for pest and disease control, and specifically its use to prevent the spread of the chestnut gallwasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in chestnut plants in nurseries.
Evaluate and compare physical, chemical and biochemical soil properties, regarding soil organic matter accumulation and soil fertility development, in cork oak woodlands, located in south Portugal, managed with two different systems: 1) a 5-year old improved pasture grazed by cattle, and 2) a natural understorey with shrubs control every 4-6 years (rotary mower), ensuring cork oak seedling are protected by adjusting cutting height to a maximum distance to soil surface, and preventing sapling damage by postponing this operation in shrub patches were natural regeneration is identified.
Cork oak vitality, namely the plagues and diseases, is one of the main concerns of forest producers, with the platypus being one of the pests mentioned in Portugal as a factor responsible for the mortality of cork oak trees.
The knowledge of the pest as well as the means/techniques of combat available, its form of use and the characteristics of the cork oak forests that make them more susceptible to the platypus are some of the proposals to be addressed in this document and in the PLATISOR project (Methods for the management of cork oak forest with «Platypus cylindrus» atacks in the region of Sor), currently underway.
Hypogeous fungi research in wider area of National Park ‘Krka’, Croatia – potential for development of mycotourism
The objectives of the Krka National Park hypogeous fungi research project are: (1) To determine the diversity of hypogeous macro-fungi in forest ecosystems of the Krka National Park, (2) To identify collected hypogeous fungi samples to species level by morphological and molecular methods, (3) To determine relationships between fungi, plants, soil, geological background, climatic and other significant ecological factors in the studied habitat, (4) Develop material for an educational trail, (5) Develop materials for holding thematic workshops on fungi in the Krka National Park.
“Traditional" or "wild" products such as medicinal plants, aromatic herbs and edible mushrooms (including truffles) are part of an emerging mass market that often targets rare or protected species. Orchids, although they are protected by legislation on a national and global scale, are a good example of such a product. Here, we discuss how we can manage the effect of harvesting on wild orchid populations, as our study points to an urgent need to find sustainable management solutions for such species of commercial interest. The dynamics and spatial characteristics of populations are extremely important for applications in conservation; to that end, we introduce an integrated approach that examines the impact of salep harvesting on orchid populations in Epirus (NW Greece).
The environmental factors that play a role in the fructification of black truffle are well known. In particular, low water availability during summer period inhibits fruiting. These elements result from observations and tests under controlled conditions. At the time of the study (late 1970s), there was no field trial to determine experimentally the influence of environmental factors in cultivated truffle conditions. A trial on a truffle farm located in south-eastern France was therefore set up in 1979 to clarify the influence of soil fertility and moisture levels on Black truffle fructification.
The aim of this work was to quantify the extent of the recent decline observed in pine nut and kernel production. For this purpose, we analysed data from the INIA long-term sample plot network for cone and pine nut production in the four main Spanish stone pine regions. Data series for more than a hundred plots since the last century, previous to the arrival of the bug, were compared with the same series after its arrival. Hence, the collapse in kernel per cone yield since can be quantified, the implied main factors identified, and the evidence of L. occidentalis causality implied analysed.
Impact of postponing cork extraction on the equivalent annual annuity stands, characterized by varying productivity and cork quality
The minimum interval between 2 successive cork extractions from the same tree is fixed by law as 9 years in Portugal. Postponing cork extraction to more than 9 years is an option that results (or not) in a variation of the cork price (for the same structure of cork prices). Site productivity, cork thickness and quality and discount rate contribute to the profitability of the farm, which may be evaluated, for example, by the equivalent annual annuity (EAA). The objective is to apply the SUBER model to evaluate the influence of the cork debarking rotation period (CDR) variation, from 9 to 11 years, on the EAA of different stands by analysing the opportunity to increase the market price of extracted cork.
Impact of the production method on the gentian resource and its regeneration - The sustainable development approach of the Gentian sector
The Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea) is a wild plant harvested for its roots at the age of 20 to 30 years old. It is highly valued but little protected. A large part of the production is exported from the source in its raw state. The "Mission for the sustainable management of gentian resources in the Massif Central", a project promoted by the harvesters, helps the different members of the sector to organize themselves to work on good production practices and to ensure the sustainable use of the plant. This work is enhanced by a parallel project to create a "Sustainable Gentian" brand.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the outcome of PPT content between ultrasound-assisted extraction and the conventional maceration extraction techniques.
In most cases, the cultivation and production of lavender in Croatia is not a permanent job, but rather small plantations that generate additional household income. A large proportion of small producers, therefore, sell raw materials or semi-finished products resulting in lower economic profits. If they were able to produce the final product and market it then the economic profit would be higher. Increasing economic profit would certainly be a good incentive to increase production, and thus growing aromatic and medicinal plants would become a core business and would no longer be a hobby or source of additional income.
The carob tree cultivation is handicapped by the poor quality of the seedlings leaving the nursery due to the deterioration of the root system, and poor root quality is indeed a factor of failure when placing plants in the field. The objective of this work is to study the effect of root excision to address the problem of the pivotal nature of the root system and mycorrhization to improve the physiological quality of plants at the nursery stage and increase their chance of success in planting.
- Evaluation of spring shoot phenology (timing of budburst) variation as a function of seed geographic origin.
- Understanding the adaptation potential of cork oak populations to biotic stress, assessing if earlier/later budburst timings have consequences on the amount of leaf pest damages.
- Identify the most frequent pests occurring on the damaged leaves. Relate budburst and plant–pest interactions with climatic conditions.
The main objective of the project is the creation of a mycological reserve with a demonstrative and informative purposes as well as to guarantee the fructification of a wide fungal cortex through the application of waterings. Parallel to this main objective and taking advantage of synergies, an experimental device has been established aiming to evaluate the evolution of fungal ecosystems under climate change scenarios. Specifically, the incidence of rainfall variations on wild mushroom production is evaluated for further analysis on future climate change scenarios.
Assess how resin tapping can induce changes in the physical, chemical, and mechanical wood properties of the trees, thus conditioning its technological suitability for certain uses and, consequently, its commercial value.
The objective of this document is to highlight the importance of different initiatives, techniques and tools that have been presented by different organizations, both public and private, through the different transfer events that have taken place within the INCREDIBLE project. The aim is to provide a global vision of the different fields to explore in the resin sector.
Assess inter-tree competition in permanent plots established in un-debarked, even-aged stands located in Portugal by i) comparing with the self-thinning line and ii) assessing when stand density affects cork production, iii) stand structure and iv) tree relative growth rate (RGR) pattern over tree size. Spacing coefficient (SC) values < 1.25 are assumed to affect cork production; therefore, detecting when stand density is approaching this value is important. Relative spacing (RS) is easier to evaluate, being important to find the RS value equivalent to a SC = 1.25.
Aleppo pine is one of the dominant forest species in Tunisia, favoured by its great regeneration capacity, plasticity, climatic stress tolerance, and multiple products: wood, edible seeds, vegetable seed oil, essential oils from leaves. For these reasons it has been used massively as for reforestation.
But the wide geographical distribution of the species might imply variation in adaptive and productive traits. The use of genetic material well adapted to the environment and better performing allows for valorization of the resource and offers a guarantee of success for new reforestation. In this context, selection of the best provenances from comparative trials is an interesting research issue.
In Tunisia, the cork oak is facing various difficulties namely: severe ecological conditions, very heterogeneous stands with variable density, and strong pressure on the forest. Reforestation has become an essential alternative to regenerate old cork oak forests and to support natural regeneration. Selecting adequate plant material with good genetic quality is important to ensure high adaptation to environmental hazards. In this context, the main objective is to explore and evaluate the genetic variability among different stands to select and conserve the best genetic material.
The cork oak forest suffers from serious problems of natural regeneration following anthropic action and overgrazing. As a result, we are witnessing continuous aging and disappearance of the oak grove. The object of the investigation is to study the variation of the size of the acorns of Quercus suber collected from different sites according to an altitudinal gradient in Kroumirie (North-West of Tunisia) in order to make the right choice of acorns for a plantation successful and adapted from cork oak.
The selection of forest species and the study of their behavior variability relative to the main environmental conditions change remains a major challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the intraspecific variability responses of Quercus suber L. to drought conditions in order to determine the future sustainability of cork oak forest in Tunisia.
In order to formulate new regulations for updating relevant existing forest, rural and commercial legislation for the collection, certification and trade of Wild Edible Mushrooms (WEM) in Greece, an expert working group was set up in2015 by the Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Ministry of Rural Development and Food. The experts compiled a special report which reviews and evaluates European and national legislation, investigating possible similarities, differences or gaps proposing innovating ways to boost rural economies, while ensuring their sustainable harvesting</p>
The purpose of this normative is to regulate the Wild Mycological Resources in Castilla y León. Specifically, the normative reflects the basic and appropriate measures for the conservation of wild mushroom species, their sustainable management and use, their marketing for food consumption, the promotion of knowledge, as well as the appreciation and respect for the ecological function of the mushrooms in the forest.
The main objective of this factsheet is to help technicians and forsters to recognize, in the field, insect gall wasps of Eucalyptus species.
Electric power production from coal combustion still accounts for a great proportion of total energy production in Europe. The Public Power Corporation S.A is the largest power producer and distributor in Greece and for more than 70 years manages a great coal mining area, the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia. The coal mining procedure leads to the formation of disturbed lands in coal mines, mainly in the places of soil depositions, the implication of a viable reclamation practice of whom is very critical.
The risk of accident is real for the resin tapper. The objective here is not to protect the worker against the accident but rather to avoid the aggravation of the consequences of an accident by alerting the emergency services as soon as possible. The Lone Worker Device is a function that can be useful for both resin tappers and forest workers.
Longal Chestnut - the potential of a traditional regional variety from Portugal's Terra Fria Transmontana
Chestnuts are an extremely important product for the Portuguese region 'Terra Fria Transmontana', representing one of the most profitable crops today. Its commercialization is still done based solely on caliber, an essential characteristic to satisfy a consumer little informed about the diversity of existing varieties. Longal is a traditional regional variety from PDO Castanha da Terra Fria, with excellent characteristics for fresh consumption and the processing industry. It is important to work on its promotion with consumers and producers.
Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone harvesting in Portugal continues to occur trough the traditional way, that is, by specialized workers that climb the trees and remove the cones by hand using special tools.
Here we intend to document photographically this traditional knowledge, present the various tools used by cone pickers in the harvesting process and the materials used to build them. This information can be potentialy usefull in other coutries were cone harvesting is made by small, locally operating family firms.
Mapping the potential for truffle production in a natural environment. Development of a method suited to the private forests of the Mont Ventoux (France)
The aim is to map the potentiality of the black truffle production based on the current scientific knowledge already available. To do this, a truffle potential level is assigned to each point of the territory covered with forests. This must eventually allow managers to determine the level of investment in rehabilitating formerly truffle land based on expected potential production.
In Portugal, traditionally, the maritime pine is the species exploited to obtain resin. The silvicultural models used assume timber as the main product and resin as the secondary product, this being a periodic and annual source of income for the owner. The description of silvicultural models that make timber and resin exploitation compatible is essential and should be based on knowledge.
Chestnut ink disease, caused by root pathogens (Phytophthora sp. ), induces dieback and mortality in sweet chestnut, C. sativa. Classical biological control can be efficient using ink resistance rootstocks that block the entrance of the fungus.
In this context, selected ink-resistant chestnut clones need to be propagated massively. Here, a method is presented for multplication and rooting clones under photoautotrophic conditions.
This factsheet aims to present the mechanical harvesting option and the productivity monitorization done in umbrella pine stands harvested in both ways (manual and mechanically) in the last 17 years, located in Chamusca, Portugal. 5,000 m2 sample plot were installed in stand planted in the 1960s.
One of the preconditions for successful cultivation and increase of production of medicinal and aromatic plants in Croatia is in any case knowledge of their ecological characteristics. However, previous studies of medicinal and aromatic plants in Croatia have not systematically included the islands of Krk, Cres and Pag, despite the fact that these islands are areas of plant richness. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the abundance and diversity and ecological characteristics of wild medicinal and aromatic plants of the rocky pastures of these islands.
Under this framework, the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UOI, developed a web database of medicinal plants of the region of Epirus and the mainland of Greece, that contain all basic information related to the morphology of the herbs, official and popular names, taxonomy, pharmacological properties, side effects and toxicity, etc.
The users can retrieve information related to a particular medicinal plant using its official or popular name, the active compound of interest, the disease to be treated, or the region the herb grows. For every herb there are characteristic pictures and drownings, reports on pharmacological/therapeutic and toxicity effects, methods of administration and references.
Medicinal sage is an native plant species of Dalmatia spread throughout the Mediterranean. In the Republic of Croatia along the entire coast, as well as in the entire Dalmatia. Sage is first and foremost a medicinal plant, but it is also used as a spice. In Dalmatia, sage was used long before the classical period, in the nature its leaves were collected from which essential oil was obtained, and the beginnings of cultivation date to the early 20th century on the island of Hvar. Today in Dalmatia there is no production of dried leaves and essential sage oil, except to a lesser extent on Hvar and for personal needs.
MERCASETAS and MERCATRUFAS are fundamentally tools for the promotion and commercialization of the mycological resource and an opportunity to approach and encourage the consumption of these products among the attending public.
MERCATRUFAS is a market for Black Truffles (Tuber melanosporum) with a mycological character, being the meeting point between the truffle grower and the final consumer, who is guaranteed about the origin and quality of all the truffles with strict quality controls.
MERCASETAS is a new concept of market of mycological products, mainly oriented to the tourism whose objective is to dynamize the commercial activity of the sector, guaranteeing the origin, the traceability and the quality of the product, promoting the agro-alimentary innovation, improving the environmental and gastronomic education of the consumer.
Methodology to assess the situation of a medicinal and aromatic plant species to apply a sustainable management in a specific context
A large number of the medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) on the market come from wild collection and some of them are being overexploited or exploited without following proper practices. Establishing an adequate management could maintain the use of some species without compromising their conservation and obtain a benefit for the rural community.
In order to collect, it is necessary to evaluate the situation of that species in the place where it is going to be collected to estimate if it can be considered a “resource” or not, and to do it following an adequate methodology.
MICODATASIG: Territorial Information System on the production and management of mycological resources in Castilla y León region, Spain.
MicodataSIG relies on a set of protocols and technologies for the diagnosis of mycological resources aiming to implement a Territorial Information System. The goal is to provide technical information as well as disseminating to the society over the production and sustainable management of the main edible wild mushrooms in Castilla y León region, Spain.
Greece was until recently considered as a country where mushroom consumption was limited to few species per region. Mushroom were for most Greeks an occasional food, linked to poverty, the "meat of the poor", as they used to call them, that helped rural populations to survive the years of WWII. However, over the last 20 years the picture has changed dramatically as mushrooms are nowadays at the focus of a broader movement, which integrates individual research artistic-creative and entrepreneurial actions related to mushrooms to an activity with a strong social character.
The main objective of this application is to provide companies in the mycological sector with a traceability management tool for the purchase of wild mushrooms and fresh truffles from the collector or producer. To identify one more agent in the traceability of the product, by including the collector of wild mushrooms and the space where they have been collected, favoring the control systems in food safety.
This work aims the valorization of myrtle fruits through the determination of its mineral composition. Such a study is important to highlight the nutritional value of this NWFP.
Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is one of the most drought-tolerant pine species and it is distributed over large drought-prone Mediterranean regions. The determination of the water balance of the soil-crop-climate and its fluctuation is difficult to achieve, due to the spatial variation in site conditions (Schiller and Cohen, 1998). The objectives of this study are to (1) estimate crop water requirements (ETc) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of Tunisian Aleppo pine and (2) study the impact of climate change on water balance, using the WEAP-MABIA Module (Yates et al.,2005a; 2005b; Jabloun and Sahli, 2012) based on the FAO Irrigation and Drainage publication 56 (Allen et al., 1998).
Eucalyptus is an enormous and fascinating genus with over 700 species. Most of Eucalyptus species are known as aromatic plants and with medicinal and melliferous uses. Therefore, it’s important to valorize and ensure a continuous regeneration of Eucalyptus species. In this prospect, the main focus of this work was to evaluate seeds viability used to regenerate forests and in order to elevate its production of NWFP.
The aim of the EVAFORA study is to simulate the behaviour of Pinus pinaster stands in the face of climate change by 2100 by analysing wood volume production and carbon stock data. Climatic variables (temperature increase, precipitation decrease,...) as well as the effects of silvicultural operations are integrated thanks to the GO + model. In the long term, will maritime pine remain the species best adapted to the new climatic conditions in the Landes de Gascogne massif? What silvicultural management will ensure greater stand resilience to climate change?
The aim is to monitor the population densities of the lepidopteran defoliator Lymantria dispar in Sardinian oak woodlands. This is done through egg mass counts with the aim of predicting the areas at risk of defoliation and plan insecticide applications accordingly.
This study is aimed at accelerating the onset of truffle production by avoiding weed competition around the recently planted Tuber melanosporum inoculated seedlings. By doing so reducing the labor costs, avoiding compacting the soil or loosing the organic certification of the truffle orchard.
This document presents the Network of Selected Cork Oak stands of Extremadura, an initiative for the conservation and improvement of forest genetic resources for the production of cork in Extremadura. Its purpose is to promote sustainable management, taking advantage of individuals with the best characteristics for obtaining cork. The Network is described below, as well as the procedure for registering stands in it.
This example show cases the possibility that some private companies, interested in processing cork, wood chips and wood, take-up forest management on behalf of private or public forest owners in a new private-private or private-public business model. This ensures the conservation of largely abandoned cork oak woodlands. The agreement foresees the possibility for the processing industry to ensure the mid and long-term supply of cork.
The traditional method of resin tapping is a very time-consuming activity since it requires the resin tapper to visit each tree every 10 to 15 days during the season. In order to develop more efficient methodologies, the results of the first experiments carried out using the new drilling technique are presented.
The study compares different formulations based on natural raw materials for plastics production and demonstrates the important role that natural resin derivatives can play in the improvement of biobased and/or biodegradable plastics performance, as an alternative to those derived from petroleum.
The final objective is to provide consumers with biodegradable plastic material of excellent technical qualities for the production of packaging and applications in construction, automotive, electronics or agriculture, in a context of environmental and economic sustainability.
Describe the main contents of the recent Italian fiscal law on NWFPs, approved at the end of 2018. This fiscal reform aimed to simplify the fiscal system of NWFPs pickers, in order to contrast the diffusion of the informal market, contributing to increase the transparency and support the traceability of some specific value chains.
With the fluctuation of truffle market, the prices of truffles for restaurants and/or for end consumers can be very variable. This implies the use of less expensive truffle based additions, such as truffle oils and tartufatas (mixture or mushrooms and truffle, used as side dishes, or as a main ingredient for truffle based pates and sauces). Since the odor of fresh truffles are volatile and more mild than their replacements (truffle oils), the objective of this text is to educate the end consumer on differences between the raw truffle material and processed ingredients found in grocery stores.
The Periploca angustifolia is a native shrub widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. This species is threatened because of its medicinal properties, its pastoral interest and its role in the fight against soil erosion. The main objective of this work is to master the germination and multiplication techniques of Periploca angustifolia L.
Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and study of biological activities of Pinus brutia needles
The aim of this work was to enhance the extraction technique of pine needles active molecules to valorize the non used needles.
Cork is a non-timber forest product of great importance due to its excellent characteristics in terms of insulation, elasticity and sustainability. Spain is the second world producer of cork after Portugal. Traditionally, debarking is carried out at intervals ranging from 9 to 14 years, depending on the area. However, the growth of the cork is not constant over the life of the tree, so uneven debarking intervals may be advisable. Despite its economic importance, no silvicultural schedules exist which are based on optimizing the profitability of these stands. This factsheet provides guidelines for the management of cork oak stands when the aim is to optimize economic profitability.
Private forest is often very fragmented: forestry operations and forest products marketing are difficult on small areas. Owners have organized themselves into a forest management association (ASLGF) to group their plots into a single management unit. Their objective is to jointly lead the development of their forests. In addition to harvesting wood, they also registered collective production of essential oils of Scots pine. They wish to label themselves as a Forest Economic and Ecological Interest Group (GIEEF).
The objectives of this participative research program are:
1: Select surviving European chestnut trees within strong impacted areas by the ink disease
2: Evaluate their resistance against Phytophthora in laboratory, and verify their belonging to sweet chestnut, the species Castanea sativa.
3: Use the individuals showing the best resistance capacities against ink disease (“elite trees”) as seeds producers in seed orchards.
The expected results are:
- Reconquest and renewal of the actually declining chestnut orchards
- Decrease of production cost due to nuersery seedling production.
- Higher genetic diversity in the chestnut plantations.
The best option for highly atomised sectors is to have a common positioning that brings together as many products as possible, by creating an umbrella brand that provides added value. PEFC Spain enables forest certification for wild products by means of grouping all producers and forest products managed under sustainability criteria under a recognized brand. This enhances an economic activities compatible with forest conservation and undertaken by thousands of people in Spanish rural areas.
The PEFC certification for wild food chains of custody (CoC) can help to improve the regulation of their use and commercialisation and the recognition of sectors that at present are still partly non-formal.
The aim of this work was to valorize Arbutus unedo by its regeneration in vivo and in vitro, also by characterizing of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of leaves and fruits in order to evaluate and improve the potential value of this plant.
We have projected for the ﬁrst time to study the impact of geographic variation and environmental conditions on the chemical composition, the antioxidant activities as well as the antitumor activity of two of Pinus halepensis Mill. Oils provenances, distributed under different ecological conditions in Tunisia.
The objective of the project was to create a Corsican beer that could be recognised by fine beer lovers, a high-end product that is also thirst-quenching in order to adapt to the Mediterranean climate. This beer had to be with character and to be brewed with a mixture of malt and Corsican chestnut flour, insular raw material. To do this, a brewery had to be built in Corsica and had to reach 10,000 hectolitres of production capacity.
The objective was to evaluate the loss of moisture in pine cone during the storage after harvest, comparing the storage inside a warehouse or just under a shed. This information is intended to support the producer in deciding when to sell, at the beginning, during or at the end of the commercialization campaign, taking into account not only the market price / kg but also the weight loss of the pine cone due to the loss of moisture.
The objective is to analyze the possibility of modeling the kernel weight from biometric and morphological parameters of the pine nuts from Pinus pinea, measured through X – ray and image analysis. The overall objective is to support the definition of a pine cone quality assessment methodology at the stand/ farm level in order to provide the landowners with tools for pine cone commercialization and increase by this mean the market transparency.
This factsheet aims to highlight the interannual variation of the pine cone dimensions and present some factors that explain it, in order to contribute for the future establishment of silvicultural measures than can lead to a decrease in that variation, by promoting the conditions for bigger pine cones or selecting more suitable Forest Reproduction Materials (FRM) .
At a first glance, imported Asiatic and genuine Mediterranean pine nuts seem to be similar in size, colour and aspect. Cheaper Chinese chestnuts can also be confused with European chestnuts, when botanic species and origin are not declared on the label, despite this information being mandatory by UNECE marketing standards (2013).
However, aspects such as nutritional values and processing quality, sustainability of collection from wild and of course the taste are highly important. Consumer awareness is vital in this regard. Hence , supply chain actors in the Mediterranean should work together to improve the product profiles of their gourmet nuts, quite distinct from the cheaper imports.
The objective of the project PLANT WILD-Forest Plant Wild Harvesting Learning in Europe(2011-2013) was to promote the employment opportunities in rural and mountainous areas and sustainable wild harvesting techniques, generating best training practices to obtain environmental and economical sustainability and determining tools to support trainers, learners and professionals. Partipating partners developed the necessary methodologies for implementing an effective training on Wild Collection (WC) of Non Wood Forests Products (NWFP), focusing in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs).
• Establish, by compilation of data obtained from collectors and producers, a list of plant species picked for artisanal or industrial production chains,
• Referencing these species according to their validated scientific name,
• Provide some indicators of the risks that could weigh on these species.
The objective of this economic experience is to bring value to all the local chestnuts production in order to keep the maximum added value of the products at the producer/processor level, preserving local transformation know-how in order to ensure high quality products.
To do it, the idea of this experience is that producers pool the transformation process and join together in order to enter more important markets.
In order to ensure the sustainability of the exploitation of pine resin and to guarantee that it is guided by good management practices - promoting the vitality of pine forests and forest protection practices, contributing with relevant annual revenues - it was considered necessary, in Portugal, to define a legal regime, simplifying and concentrating all the rules in a single legal document. This legislation is an essential knowledge tool for authorities and economic agents, focusing on the production, exploitation and dynamics of resin from the forest to the industrial processing unit.
Cork oak ecosystems have been experiencing a serious decline in the last decades attributed to different causes, including wildfires. After fire trees may become particularly vulnerable to forest pests, which may further affect the vigor of surviving trees and give rise to massive dispersing offspring affecting surrounding areas, but this was rarely assessed in Mediterranean oak ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the presence and dynamics of xylophagous insects on cork oak forests following fire in central Portugal.
The main objective is to know the potential distribution of chestnut (Castanea sativa) in Castile and Leon through the use of spatial modelling tools based on 13 different variables. The aim has been to determine where the bioclimatic and geographical conditions are most suitable for the species to prosper. These models allow to evaluate in a quantitative way the possibility that a chestnut population occupies a specific area.
PragueTruffle aims to diversify the tourism offer in Prague, which represents one of the most famous tourist destinations around the world. The initiative provides a truffle (species: Tuber aestivum) hunting demonstration (with a dog) in the Petřín Park, that offers one of the best views of Old Town Prague. In addition to this experience, PragueTruffle customers receive contextual information about truffles as well as about Prague history, followed by a truffle dish in a luxury restaurant with a gorgeous view of Prague. At the end, the clients can take a fresh truffle as a gift.
Climate change is affecting the health and productivity of the Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea) stands in the Spanish Northern Plateau. The main research lines for adapting this forest ecosystrems and mitigating the effect of climate change are presented. The finding should lead to recommendations for the future management of these stands.
Project PyCup: responsible practices for professional picking. An example of sustainable supply in AMP value chain
The PyCuP project is supporting the Pyrenean stakeholders in their reflexion and efforts toward a regulation of picking practices, for a sustainable valuation of the local wild plant resources. It aims at answering the main questions of the public about the role of such activities in a “wild mountain”. Therefore, the project creates awareness about the issues of these natural resources’ exploitation.
Environmental conditions have a great effect on regeneration, especially in arid or semi-arid ecosystems, such as the Mediterranean basin. In these systems the plants suffer a high water stress during the summer, due to the reduced availability in water and the high temperatures, which are limiting for the survival of the natural regeneration. Knowing the factors that influence the success of regeneration and what techniques currently exist to enhance its occurrence, are tools to support the management of the cork oak forests, ensuring the long-term sustainability.
The project objective was to identify chemically different Rosmarinus officinalis wild populations present in the Spanish geography in order to be able to choose those that present a higher essential oil concentration with an interesting chemical composition for the industry uses.
Identify these wild populations is the starting point for initiating any breeding program to obtain commercial varieties that can be put into large scale cultivation to satisfy quantity and quality industrial demand.
Quantify the carbon footprint of different Alepo Pine forestry scenarios (biomass and soil capture and wood products storage) in order to compare in terms of climate change mitigation.
Identify amongst the favourable forest management practices those that:
- Boost management,
- Are geared towards forest quality,
- Minimize risks,
- Ultimately allow Mediterranean forest management sector development participating the rise of the carbon market.
Quantifying carbon stocks in Pinus pinea stands: simple allometric models using easily measurable tree variables
Allometric models establish relationships between tree morphological parameters and the respective biomass in its various components, allowing to make forest carbon estimates. In this sense, this study aims to develop models for the stone pine (Pinus pinea) gathering biomass information from sampled trees in Portugal, Spain, and Italy. These models use simple-to-measure tree variables (diameter at breast height – d, and total height - h) and are suitable for obtaining carbon estimates of aboveground biomass and roots in stone pines across the Mediterranean region.
The attractiveness of the resin tapper's profession is a key point for the revival of natural resin extraction to be a success. The aim is to adapt the resin extraction method to reduce the difficulty of the resin tapper's work. In creating the Biogemme© method, Holiste has taken this aspect into account. This involves, in particular, the creation of an appropriate tool to mechanize the harvest.
The high prices paid for genuine Mediterranean pine nuts kernels as gourmet nuts are due to an sustained demand on the world market, not met by the production harvested from the wild. The use of grafted Mediterranean stone pine trees allows landowners to establish profitable new plantations with precocious cone yields. For this purpose, genotypes have been selected in Spain and Portugal. Here we present 15 clones registered in Spain with estimated gains of around +10-30% in mean cone yield.
A method is resented to reduce the severity of cankers caused by chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica. This pathogenic fungus penetrates and necroses cortical tissues, which provoke mortality of adult trees aerial parts and failure of grafting.
In the 1970s, French researchers developed a biological control method using hypovirulent strains of the fungus. Since then, a research programme at INRA conducted with several organisations (Chambers of Agriculture, Union of Chestnut production Associations, the Forest Health Department) aims at clarifying and improving thecontrol methods.
The main objective is the implementation of a management system for the regulation of the mycological harvesting at a regional level, in order to generate, through the mycological resource, a way of rural and local development, by promoting mycological tourism and to encourage an ordered, sustainable and compatible activity with the rest of the uses and forest harvesting.
This management system is based on the sale of picking permits of different modalities and durations, with prices that vary according to classes of permits, between 3 and 300 Euros. It also adapts to current regulations, reflected in DECREE 31/2017, of October 5, which regulates the wild mycological resource in Castilla y León.
Research on hypogeous fungi is a project carried out by the Croatian Forest Research Institute in cooperation with the County of Varaždin and the Bank of Zagreb on the territory of Varaždin County, Croatia. The project aims to (1) Identify the diversity of hypogeous macrofungi in different ecosystems in the Varazdin County area, (2) Identify collected mushroom samples to species level by morphological and / or molecular methods whenever possible, (3) Identify habitat characteristics and plant communities in the research area.
Resin cooperativism and business diversification: ingredients for sustainable and quality forestry job
Sometimes, the profitability of a natural resource use depends more on the business model and the entrepreneurial culture on which its exploitation is based, than on productivity factors or technological development associated with the use itself.
An innovative business success case, linked to the natural resin extraction activity, such as Pinaster Servicios Medioambientales, can serve as a reference for private entrepreneurs and public decision-makers and administrators to develop and support efficient business strategies that integrate the resin activity.
The objective is to present the different initiatives that exist at the national level in Spain to characterize resin production and the potential of this resource. These initiatives, framed within the Spanish Forest Statistics defined in the Spanish Forest Law 43/2003, include both production statistics and characterization of the forest resources that either produce or could potentially produce resin.
The objective of this project is to characterize the links between the production of maritime pine resin and the properties of the station. The program is particularly interested in the influence of soil (rather than climatic variations).
The experiment is conducted on the three types of stations that dominate in the Landes: dry heath, mesophilic heath and wet heath The results could make it possible to identify the most productive and therefore more interesting areas for the resin tapper.
Describe the key elements constituting the natural resin sector in a historical resinous region, underlining the social, environmental and economic importance of resin harvesting, and its potential as an instrument of local development and environmental conservation.
The ResinApp provides the natural resin sector with a tailored tool that allows the traceability of natural resin from the forest to the factory, endowing the industry of first resin transformation with a practical system for the logistic and administrative management of the supply of natural resin, and to the resin tappers with a tool that allows better working conditions, administrative simplification and greater recognition of their work.
RESINEX Operational Group: Professionalization, knowledge transfer and innovation in the resin sector in Extremadura
The RESINEX Operational Group (OG) and its innovation project are presented, the aim of the latter being to boost the resin sector in Extremadura. This OG comprises companies, associations and research centres with close links to the Forest Sector. The promotional institutions included in this OG cover environmental management from different perspectives. This diversification enables products and processes that can be improved within the forestry sector to be identified. The beneficiary associations provide a direct link with the workers in the sector, as well as forming part of the outreach activities, providing a greater territorial scope.
The success story of the company Santiago Perea S.L. in the processing of pine nuts in Andalusia (Southern Spain) is presented here. The commitment of this company to innovation since its creation in 1950 has led to its outstanding positioning in the sector. The main milestones in the history of the company and the most notable elements of its business model are described below.
Seasonal variation of antioxidative molecules and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in Tunisia
In light of the great global interest in PAM as a source of active ingredients. So, it is important to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis by evaluating of some biochemical responses in three sites Mount of Zaghouan (DZ), Mount of Mansour (DM) and Mount of Sarej (DS) and to compare their behavior in the three seasons (spring, summer and autumn).
Seasonal variation of photosynthetic parameters of Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in natural Tunisian Aleppo pine forest
Understanding and quantify the role played by undergrowth in the resilience and adaptation to climate change of the pine forest in Tunisia, by comparing the state of vegetation of the undergrowth species of a pine forest Aleppo at different bioclimatic stages in the southern Mediterranean of Tunisia (Mount of Zaghouan (upper subhumid climate with mild and temperate winters), Mount of Mansour (semi-arid lower to upper arid) and Mount of Sarej (semi-arid upper semi-arid with cold and temperate winter variations)).
The Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum L.) is a Mediterranean and West Asian species considered in Tunisia as rare with only three locations. The ecological importance of the species as a broadleaf and its effects on its natural ecosystem leads us to get a clear idea of the best way of propagation using seeds.
The Myrtus communis L. is an endemic species appreciated traditionally for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Improving the multiplication and propagation methods of the common myrtle is the most important objective of this paper. The work was held to conserve the species and its decreasing populations due to the lake of management, overcutting and Anthropozoic pressure in its location area.
Selection of pine species in Tunisia: Result of the comparative species trials of Souiniet and Djebel Abderrahmen Arboretums
Faced with changes and in the absence of regeneration, the natural forest formations in the North of Tunisia are experiencing serious problems of degradation. The use of pines as alternative species would be a possible and advantageous solution, but the choice should be given in priority to fast-growing species, ecologically well adapted and economically profitable.
The main objective is the promotion of wild mushrooms originating in the forest areas of Castile and León region, the incorporation of added value to labelled mycological products through the certification of qualities specified in the regulations of use and the transfer to the consumer of their food safety.
Setting up of a short supply chain based on the valorization of cork waste in the Pyrénées-Orientales region
This project studied in the Pyrénées-Orientales region for cork waste and the setting up of a short supply chain (building, garden centre, etc.) in order to create local jobs and enable owners of cork oak forests to earn some. The structuring of a value chain for cork waste will allow a return to production of the cork groves favourable to the prevention of fire risks and thus to the conservation of its heritage interest. The project has chosen to use techniques which do not require major investment in equipment or buildings. We focused on the results of a transformation into granulated cork for bulk insulation.
Silvo-pastoral systems are quite common in the Alentejo region of south Portugal. Bringing together economic profitability and ecological sustainability is challenging and requires a conscientious management.
We present the example of a young forest owner who manages a farm in south Portugal composed of a mixture of cork oak and stone pine grazed by cattle.
The recognition of severe soil degradation problems and the effort in its recovery has been the priority of this owner. The management options carried out in the last 15 years are now positively reflected in soil quality, biodiversity and in the survival of tree seedlings. Overcoming annual precipitation reduction is one of the main challenges.
The Decree-Law nº 181/2015, defines the legal regime for the resin activity and circulation of pine resin in Continental Portugal. The regime requires prior notification to the Portuguese Institute for Nature Conservation and Forestry (ICNF) of resin tapping, resin import and export, resin transportation and storage and resin used by 1st transformation industry. The communication is made online through the Resin Information System (SiResin):
In response to the growing international curiosity about truffles we offer Black Truffle tours in Soria Spain in February, when these truffles are ripe! Our guests will meet local truffle growers, their skilled dogs, and learn all about truffle ecology. This is an invitation to explore Soria, a region rich in culinary traditions, heartfelt hospitality, spectacular natural beauty and a fascinating heritage from Celtic, Roman, Moorish, and medieval times. It offers an opportunity for cultural and scientific exchanges between truffle and mushroom enthusiasts from all over the world.
Rational fertilization can improve tree health, growth and potentially benefit pine cone and pine nut production. The reduction of forest exploitation costs without neglecting environmental factors and promoting biodiversity is an important management achievement in the context of climate change.
To establish fertilizer recommendations in stone pine for cone production, it is crucial to evaluate soil fertility, tree nutritional status and, if irrigated, the quality of the irrigation water. Here we present part of the results of the operational group FERTIPINEA, focused on the analysis of Portuguese stone pine stands regarding soil physical and chemical characteristics.
The aim of Soria Gastronomica as a gastronomic and cultural event for professionals in the hotel and catering sector, cooks, traders of food products, mushroom producers, mycologists, biologists, gastronomic press and lovers of mushroom world in general, is to share knowledge, provide updated information on any topic related to mycology, learn, teach and promote the province of Soria as one of the richest territories for its mycological production.
StarTree project: case studies of Non Wood Forest Products value chains, the Trentino Alto-Adige (Italy) regional market of mushrooms
In the Italian forest sector, NWFPs play a fundamental role. In 2011, according to an estimation reported in State of Europe’s Forests , NWFPs were worth 57% more than roundwood. However, statistics on NWFPs sector are scarce and often unreliable. This study, developed in the context of the European project "Startree", represents the first attempt to describe the hidden market related to the mushroom sector in a specific Italian region (Trentino Alto-Adige).
There are several requirements and experiences for a successfull graft, that are reviewed in the following from a practical point of view.
In coastal regions like the Portuguese Alentejo or Catalonian Empordà, grafting is usually performed directly in the field on young plantations, by specialised teams of skilled forest workers. In-nursery grafting on container-raised rootstocks is an alternative, not discussed here, for harsher climate conditions where in situ grafting has a low success rate due to unpredictable spring weather (rain, wind, or late frost in some years, early heat waves in others).
Several handbooks and guides are available online for further consultation.
The objective of the present study is to better understand the relationship between tree characteristics and cone production of Mediterranean stone pine. This was achieved by quantifying the gain in using detailed crown metrics in estimating cone production at individual tree level (number of cones per tree and average cone weight). Models based on traditional variables (tree size and stand characteristics) were compared to models that relied on crown metrics extracted from TLS data. The resulting models should help owners and managers to better predict cone production.
Solve the problem of the fragility of oak acorns used for reforestation and animal feed by improving the process of their conservation for a period close to a year.
The aim of the project is to develop an industrially producible bio-sourced varnish based on gum rosin and linseed oil, inspired by the ancient know-how of the violin maker Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737). The difficulty is to meet the specifications of an industrial manufacture while achieving high performance of the varnish.
The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents could be considered as very promoting products for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives.
The objective of the present investigation was mainly focused on the assessment of the biological performance of the resin. Therefore, the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the three Tunisian pine species Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea, and Pinus halepensis were conducted in order to control four pathogenic bacteria species.
The exploitation of pine forests in Tunisia which covered up to 50% of the total forest area could contribute and generate additional income sources for forest populations. Until now, the resin extraction knowledge was very limited and outdated. In the present study, the assessment of the biological performance of the resin was the main objective in order to detect the antioxidant activity of three pine species in the Tunisian forest.
The objective of this study is to establish a vigilance map to identify the areas where cork oak is adapted or inadapted to the forest station in a context of changing climate, through the BioClimSol tool developed by CNPF. This tool allows the collection and analysis of field data (soil, climate, sanitary conditions, ...). The vigilance map, by forecasting and locating the risks of decline of the Corsican cork oaks, will help managers take management decisions. The objective is to make silvicultural proposals in order to prevent and limit the risks of dieback.
Croatia is a world famous destination for its truffle collection in wild and the truffle sector is well developed. However, although Croatia is a small country, truffle production is in fact concentrated only in the Istrian region and has not been developed in the rest of the country. In other parts of the country, very few people are involved in collecting truffles (summer truffles) and this is actually more of a hobby for them than a source of income. Therefore, it was important to conduct a survey to determine where summer truffle could be found and in what quantities, and the results of the survey would give us a clearer picture of the possibility of developing the truffle sector in other parts of the country.
After harvesting, the resin takes the form of a homogeneous mixture. Its distillation makes it possible to obtain two products: rosin and turpentine oil. The objective of extraction is to isolate and sample these compounds accurately. In other words, it is a question of having the finest possible selectivity. The second objective is not to alter the molecules and thus take full advantage of its qualities.
Sustainable wild collection of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.) in the Pyrenees as a conservation practice
The aim of the experimental work was to study the aerial biomass production of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi present in the Pyrenees under different environmental conditions (altitude, slope and orientation, substrate, tree cover and population abundance) and to analyse the effects of the season in which it is collected (autumn or spring), the intensity (0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of the population) and the frequency of collection on the regeneration capacity of the species, in order to be able to propose some guidelines for a sustainable collection of bearberry in the Pyrenees.
Researchers and forest managers interested in the study of the resin resource have difficulties in locating and accessing experimental data generated in previous projects.
This circumstance means the loss of precious research and management resources and the experimental data, obtained at the cost of significant technical and economic effort.
SustForest Resin Lab is a platform to share experimental and management data, facilitating both the offer of such data, as well as access to data generated by other agents and the possibility to request its use.
In the Doñana National Park in Andalusia, short-rotation coppice eucalyptus plantations occupy large areas and belong to private forest owners.
« Esencias Garcia-Palomo » distillery uses 5,000 kg of eucalyptus branches and leaves every day for its production of 10 to 40 kg of essential oil. Not being a forest owner, this resource is a cost to the company.
Mr. Palomo has organized with his neighbors to work in symbiosis and limit the costs of their respective operations : the collection of his raw materials contributes to the silviculture of coppices of eucalyptus.
The standardisation study facilitates the inclusion of wood from resin tapped pines in the Spanish standard UNE 56544 (Visual classification of sawn wood for structural use. Coniferous wood), in order to favour its use and marketing as structural wood.
Simultaneously, the study compares the physical-mechanical properties of resinated Pinus pinaster wood against non-resin wood under the same normative parameters (UNE 56544), so that the technical buyer can evaluate which product is the most suitable for the intended application.
Within the framework of the European project SustForest Plus for the revival of gemmaging in Europe, the Centre Régional de la Propriété Forestière de Nouvelle-Aquitaine has commissioned the technological institute Forest Cellulose Wood and Furniture to analyse the impact of resin extraction on the technological characteristics of pine wood (mechanical properties, drying, aesthetics, etc).
AFC is the French Association of professionals wild plants pickers. It was created in 2011 to bring together professionals of wild plants picking and to promote this profession.
It defends sustainable commercial harvesting and a responsible profession.
It wishes to ensure the representativeness of the pickers with other operators in the sectors and the public authorities.
Cork harvesting, every 10 to 15 years depending on the region, requires trees in good phytosanitary conditions and is a potential source of stress, especially if debarking is poorly done. Hence the interest in having a tool to assess the trees phytosanitary conditions, which can be used as a decision support tool when carrying out silvicultural operations. This tool is based on a visual diagnostic method called Archi, developed by CNPF. ARCHI is based on the reading of tree crown architecture using a specific identification key referring to different architectural types related to resilience capacities.
The association "Gemme la forêt d'Aquitaine" was founded on 7 March 2014. Its aim is to revive resin extraction in the Landes de Gascogne forest. It is with this objective in mind that the members of the association have decided to come together in order to pool knowledge, research and initiatives across the entire value chain: from the forest to consumer expectations through processing.
In addition to their traditional local use in human and animal food, the fruits of the carob tree have a high commercial value in industrial transformation. The demand for fruits and seeds is growing significantly and their commercial value is increasing. It is also an undemanding species, since it is found in various bioclimatic levels (humid, subhumid, semi-arid and arid) and on poor and skeletal soils. The objective of this work is to explore a panel of varieties to be characterized by describing the tree, fruits, and seeds in an illustrated form.
The chestnut gall wasp in the Portuguese region of Terra Fria Transmontana: Three years of biological control
The Dryocosmus kuriphilus insect, chestnut gall wasp, introduced in Portugal in 2014, represents a serious threat to the national production of chestnuts. Over the years, various pest outbreaks have been identified, which is currently present in much of the Terra Fria Transmontana region, with levels of severe infestation levels. The official reports state, “We are currently witnessing a large and rapid dispersion of the insect and the alarm of the populations, given the damage it is already causing, so, an intensification of the parasitoid releases for these regions should be considered from 2020”.
The main objective of the Mesa del Castaño del Bierzo (Regional Chestnut Round Table) is to improve the economic performance of chestnut cultivation and the endurance of the chestnut tree as a characteristic natural, social and landscape element of the Bierzo region. The Round Table is also the coordination and representation body of the chestnut sector in the region.
The co-management of forest resources in Tunisia: A new approach for sustainable development in the sector of AMP
In Tunisia all forest areas are public: in order to use forest products, producers and firms should go through a tendering system subject to Article 18 of the Tunisian forestry code, organized each year by the Tunisian Forestry authority. Small firms and the local populations are facing many difficulties to use available resources legally. The DGF is promoting a new form of sustainable management for forest resources: Concluding contracts between the organized local community and the administration to improve their livelihood and to protect forestal areas.
The humidity of cork has always been a parameter considered in its commercialization, and is usually expressed as a percentage discount on the total cork quantity. Percentual moisture discounts are usually incorrectly applied, as they are applied directly to the quantity of cork. The same discount applied to cork with different moisture's content can translate into discounts in quantity of cork and not water.
This factsheet intents to inform the cork producers for the relevance of cork sampling for moisture content determination in order to establish the humidity discount in the cork business.
The formation pruning is an operation usually defined in forest management plans established for cork oak stands plantations. It aims at removing tree branches, usually the lower ones, therefore promoting the development of a long-straight stem, at least up to the expected future debarking height. This will later on facilitate cork harvesting operations.
It is unclear if the pruning intensity affects the tree growth. This factsheet shows the results of a case study where tree growth was compared between trees not pruned, and trees subject to two pruning intensities.
The influence of silvicultural practices on resin production: stand density, tree diameter, and use of controlled fire
Some aspects contribute to the increase of resin tapping costs and, hence, to the reduction of resin yield, namely: the limitation on the diameter of the trees to be tapped imposed by the Portuguese legislation; low stand densities; the necessary control of understory vegetation. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if and how some pine forest management parameters affect the total production of pine resin so it can be increased through silvicultural practices and, thus, compensate for the rise in some costs associated with the resin activity.
The Mycological Trail of Poblet has a double objective. On the one hand, the aim is to raise awareness among visitors about the mycological richness of the protected area targeting the most relevant fungal species, and on the other hand, to promote mycotourism in the area. The Mycological Trail is located in the conservation area of Poblet which is visited by thousands of mushroom pickers every autumn season.
This work aims to promote beekeeping activity in rural areas where eucalyptus can play a leading role as nectar species. This objective necessarily involves the identification of eucalyptus species of melliferous interest and the selection of the most successful species in terms of abundance of flowering, its duration, and its spreading throughout the year.
The study advances in the socio-labour reality knowledge of the Spanish workers dedicated to the resin extraction, and in the group perception about aspects related to entrepreneurship and sectorial problems.
To this end, three key aspects are elucidated:
- The definition of the typical resin workers profiles, and the socio-labour situations that characterise each one of them.
- The study of the key factors for the incorporation and the abandonment of the resin activity.
- The sounding of sectorial or professional aspects that the workers consider most relevant to be addressed at present.
The aim of this trial was to : a) increase thermoregulation efficiency of beehives by using cork in the construction of hive walls, thus improving bee health and hive productivity; b) contribute to the maintenance of traditional apiculture practices of Mediterranean agro-silvo pastoral systems, as historical findings indicate a widespread use of cork for the construction of rustic hives; c) favour a better use of a secondary product of the cork processing industry (granulated cork); d) produce lighter and more resistant hives, compared to wooden hives; e) promote the use of cork as a fundamental product and economic source of revenue of traditional agro-forestry systems.
The Val di Non and Val di Sole Apples and Flavours route: a successful territorial marketing strategy
Diversify the tourism offer in Trentino Alto-Adige (Italy), a famous destination that attracts thousands of tourists for its mountain trails and hundreds of miles of ski slopes. A diversification of local tourism offer, involving local stakeholders and supported by a specific territorial marketing strategy, can bring benefits to small farmers, restaurants and many other local actors, especially in the marginal area of the region. One of the main goals of the "route" is to assure a constant flux of tourists all year long, offering interesting activities and events in all seasons.
Aleppo pine seeds (commonly called Zgougou) derive all their originality and nobility from the fact that they are consumed by Tunisians as part of their cooking habits. Zgougou is considered one of the most interesting NWFP due to socio-economic role and commercial value. Aleppo pine seed oil can be extracted as for nutrition, or for medicinal and cosmetic uses.
The present work studies the conditions of exploitation of seeds in the forest, the yield of vegetable oil extracted, its physicochemical qualities and the possibilities of valorizing the press cake obtained after the oil extraction.
Estimate reproduction cork thickness as a criterion to examine the commercial value and to fit a non-linear model for predicting cork weight to guide the forest decision makers toward a reasonable harvest.
The objective is to guide forest decision-makers towards a reasonable cork harvest by:
• examining the thickness of cork as a criterion for estimating commercial value
• evaluating the intensity of the debarking operation on the tree
• establishing a non-linear model for predicting cork weight.
In 2008, we installed 14 mushroom inventory plots of 100 m2 size in Pinus pinaster forests. The plots were selected to include a range of geographical features (altitude, slope, aspect) as well as variation in tree density and basal area in the conservation area of Poblet. A second set of plots were installed in 2009 paired to the first set of plots. The second set of plots was thinned removing 26 to 77% of the basal area. Mushroom yields were monitored on a weekly basis in the Autumn Season of the years 2008 to 2010 to analyze the effects of forest thinning on the yields of Lactarius delicious group.
Threats and concerns in the management of stone pine in Portugal: insights from a survey among stakeholders
The forest area of stone pine, Pinus pinea, has increased significantly in Portugal in the last 30 years, following the same trend of other Mediterranean countries. At the same time, forest stakeholders report losses in cone production and yield and question on the best management practices to face a already changing climate.
During a Science to Practice event entitled "Stone pine and pine nuts: more knowledge for a better management" held in Lisbon in October 2019, we conducted a survey were we were able to assess the stakeholders' concerns with the pine nut value chain and identify research priorities.
Tuber melanosporum, the fungus that produces the priced Black Truffle, is adapted to Mediterranean droughts. Usually the production of truffles increases in years with higher precipitation. This hinted early farmers into watering the orchards to obtain better crops, but, what happens if we water too much? One of the reasons we do not find truffles in forests with abundant rains could be that in wetter conditions other fungi can outcompete T. melanosporum and displace it from the roots of the trees causing the disappearance of the fungus and the end to truffle production.
Poisoning is mostly the consequence of confusion with other edible mushroom species but, in some cases also, of poisonous species collection by people who are totally unaware of the existence of toxic mushrooms therefore not asking for specialized advice before consuming them. Several tools to reduce the number of poisoning by prevention are presented in this factsheet :
- Prevention tools deployed by ANSES (National Agency for Health Security)
- Mobile applications for mushroom recognition
The subject of this research is aromatic, medicinal and spicy cultures as part of cultural heritage and tradition. The research goal is to examine the possibilities of developing cultural, rural, health and wellness tourism based on cultural heritage. All these forms of tourism are developing rapidly because they have an important economic, social, cultural, educational and scientific role. Istria as part of Croatia belong to the Mediterranean area, the cradle of aromatic, medicinal and spicy cultures that can significantly contribute to the creation of new tourist attractions and product innovations.
The study aimed at assessing the value and trade-offs of a number of ecosystem services associated to cork oak woodland management under different sylvicultural options in state-owned forests in Sardinia.
In the past, herbs were the only cure for the disease, and learning about herbs was based only on human experience. They found the medicine in their environment, where they learned to recognize the plants and to determine how to use it. Knowledge and experience have been passed down from generation to generation, so today there are many who, thanks to the knowledge and experience of their loved ones, have become successful users and growers of medicinal plants, although unfortunately some of the knowledge about medicinal plants has probably fallen into oblivion, given that no one ever wrote it down.
Traditional use of wild and naturalized plants as a potential for innovation in the development of rural areas of Croatia
The main objective of this factsheet is to determine the possibilities and directions of innovative commercialization of wild and naturalized plants based on market trends and ethnobotanical research. One of the secondary goals is to preserve local botanical and other knowledge related to the recognition and application of wild and naturalized plants in the areas of Drenov Bok and Vela Luka by conducting field research.
Transform local and traditional recipes into a range of health, wellness and gourmet products; example of Abies Lagrimus
The main objective of the brand Abies Lagrimus is the rehabilitation of some Pyrenean traditional recipes through ranges of innovative products. These products come from natural resources, growing in the mountainous Pyrenean area. In this sector, cultural traditions are still very present. In order to guarantee the sustainability of the resources, the harvesting conditions are controlled and its recovery is respectful of the territory’s specificities (regional Natural Park).
To explore options for the management of pinaster pine stands that lead to increased resin production and therefore improved profitability, thus reducing dependence on the economic conditions of the market.
Reducing the amount of damages in the cork oak forest is very important in terms of the sustainability of this ecosystem. Although some of the wounds may have a natural origin (e.g. lightning), most of them have a human source linked to the management operations. The cicatrisation rate of the wounds differs from tree to tree, according to wound size, the tree vitality and the time of the year (5). The establishment of simple recommendations for the forest managers to identify the potential risks associated with the operations and consequences of these wounds can contribute to increase the cork oak vitality.
Trufforum® is an international event created by the The "European Mycological Institute" (EGTC-EMI) with the aim of promoting the responsible use of the Tuber melanosporum in homes and restaurants to educate consumers on:
a) Origins of the black truffle in Europe
b) Species of edible truffles
c) The organoleptic differences between black truffles and synthetic aromas.
d) The importance of quality control to avoid fraud.
e) The most appropriate modes of use in gastronomy
f) Tourism in the European truffle territories
Tunisian Salvia officinalis essential oils: Variations regarding plant organs, harvest season and drying conditions
This study presents an assessment of essential oils amounts and quality obtained from Tunisian Salvia officinalis and its variations regarding the plant organs, the harvest season and the plant's drying process conditions. Three drying processes were tested, natural air drying, hot air convective drying at two temperature 40 and 60°C and microwave drying at 218 W.
The cork used in the manufacture of natural cork stoppers or technical stoppers must meet a number of conditions, including being free of certain anomalies. The use of NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) technology has proven to be a valid technique for detecting yellow stain and corkbark, which are defects that must be avoided due to their harmful effects on the properties of the cork.
Ziziphus jujuba, known as Chinese jujube, is a highly valued plant native to China. Three species are known in Tunisia: Ziziphus lotus, Ziziphus spina-christi and Ziziphus jujuba. The Ziziphus jujuba also known as “anneb” is the most popular specie. This tree (Figure 1), with 10 cm of length and 50 cm of diameter, offer a delicious read fruit (jujube) that was consumed fresh, dried and processed (jams, loaf, cakes, etc.). The aim of this study was to attempt, for the first time, the chemical compositions of Z. jujuba fruits from Tunisia.
Valorization of a co-product from the manufacture of cork stoppers: creation, production and marketing of an innovative, patented and objectified cosmetic active ingredient.
To find a valorization of a co-product resulting from the treatment of the cork stoppers carried out by the company DIAM BOUCHAGE. The partnership between DIAM BOUCHAGE and OLEOS-HALLSTAR has made it possible to evaluate the cosmetic potential of this co-product in the form of a wax containing bioactive cork compounds. The industrial development led to the filing of a European application patent in 2014. The ingredient named DIAM Oléoactif® is a natural concentrate of anti-inflammatory compounds adapted to the care of sensitive and reactive skin.
The mobile app Vigil’Encre enables citizens to detect the chestnut ink disease (CID) - the most damaging disease for chestnut trees. Vigil’Encre applies a new approach to advance ecology, education and conservation, as it allows the public to participate in the tree health preservation.
Its broad functionality lets citizen scientists to diagnose the disease, characterize pathogens, describe their biology and in this way to actively take part in the sustainable crop protection.
- Evaluate the influence of tree size, stand characteristics, debarking coefficients and climatic variables on cork thickness and its evolution between consecutive cork extraction operations, i.e. between successive cork growth periods (cgp). Cork growth is assessed using the cgi, defined as the radial width of the first eight complete years of cork growth after stripping.
- Assess the impact of the increase in debarking intensity on cork growth. Debarking intensity is quantified by the cork debarking coefficient – the ratio of the vertical debarking height to the perimeter at breast height, measured over cork.
With the aim of knowing the quality and geographical distribution of some aromatic and medicinal species used at industrial level of the Spanish autochthonous flora, for some years projects were carried out for prospecting wild populations of Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Salvia lavandulifolia and Lavandula latifolia among others.
The purpose of these projects was to find quality plant material of these species with which to start breeding work in order to obtain commercial varieties adapted to our soil and climate conditions and make them available to the agricultural sector.
What solutions for the certification of wild AMP picking? Prospective study within the FloreS project.
The FloreS project has allowed the organization of a participative workshop, to analyse different types of labelling and certification that could meet the guarantees expected for wild plants’ picking. This workshop brought together researchers, certifying bodies, referent pickers and other stakeholders from the AMP sector.
Benefits and limits of third-party certification have been discussed, as well as options about participatory guarantee systems have been analysed. These element contributed to the construction of a charter for responsible professional pickers.
Plešivičko gorje (Plesivica hills) is located in the far eastern part of Žumberak-Samoborsko gorje Nature Park, near the towns of Samobor and Jastrebarsko. The highest parts of this hill area are wooded, and beneath this area there are meadows which are close to arable land - fields, orchards and vineyards. The aim of this study was to determine the flora of meadows in Plešivica hills and to isolate and describe medicinal, aromatic and honey plants.
In 2013, an association from Périgord launched the collective brand "Cèpes du Périgord". It provides Perigordian owners with a tool to optimize quality and marketing of their production. Organized in this way, the local boletus sector also intends to fight against illegal harvesting. Producers can thus guarantee the origin and the quality of boletus through traceability and thus better meet buyers' expectations.
In the Modenese Apennine (Italy), since the interest towards traditional forest products (as firewood) is declining, also the active forest management is strongly decreasing, especially in marginal areas. In the Taro Valley, the decreased forest management is compromising the conditions required for the development of Boletus mushrooms, a product consumed and appreciated by the local population for centuries. Therefore, there is a need to find mechanisms to re-activate forest management in the area and restore the favorable environmental conditions for the development of this mushroom.
In Italy, the collection of truffles is considered a professional activity mainly for “males”. The “Lady Truffle” initiative, founded by Elisa Ioni, sales manager of a renowned Umbrian truffle company, aims to unhinge this tradition, promoting the hobby of truffle hunting among women, and, in some cases, supporting the transformation of this hobby in a real profession.