Resin is a natural product that has multiple applications and is highly demanded in the chemical industry. As a non-timber forest product, exploitation of the abundant pine resin in Tunisian forests (50% of the forest area) can contribute to a bioeconomy and can generate additional income for forest populations.
The valorisation of local natural resin in high added value niche markets is a pillar of the French strategy for the revival of the sector. Local natural resin has many advantages over competing products: better quality, generates local jobs, enhances the value of the local forest resource, has a lower environmental impact, etc. These advantages are compatible with the markets sought after but they must be recognised. Can a label allow the local natural resin to stand out from the competition?
Explore options in Pinus pinaster stand management with adapted methods to improve compatibility between resin and timber uses.
The aim is to verify whether the 20 cm wide resin tapping wounds, wider than the traditional 12 cm, can lead to an increase in the annual resin production per tree and if this tapping method is compatible with the traditional wood use in Galicia.
Along with the latest advances in the resin sector for improving resin production, such as forest tree breeding, innovative harvesting technology, etc, prescribed fire is also analysed as a tool for increasing resin yield in Pinus pinaster stands. The results of this study are summarized below.
The selection of forest species and the analysis of their behavior variability, considering the main environmental factors, remains a major concern for the forester in Tunisia. This work is prepared to answer the following question: for reforestation needs, which is the most suitable species to reach a sustainable and productive plantation? The answer can be provided in the elimination trials in the arboretum. The arboretums offer an ideal experimental support to know the requirements of the forest species and to make a selection in favor of the best adapted and the most efficient species.
In Tunisia, handicrafts based on local wood are mostly from olive wood. Due to its physical, mechanical and aesthetic qualities, olive wood is highly sought and appreciated by artisans and buyers. In front of the growing demand for this wood, local people do not hesitate to resort to illicit cuts to satisfy the needs of the market. The objective of this study is to search for forest species offering wood qualities that rival those of olive wood and that can be valorized for artisanal use.
Assessment of resin tapping in pine forests of Castilla y León considering social and environmental values
The pine forests on the sandy plains of inner Spain represent a singular habitat and ecosystem in very poor site conditions. In addition to economic revenue from sustainable biological resources, resin tapping provides other ecological and social benefits from these forests. The present study, resulting from the SUDOE project SustForest, analyses the inclusion of these factors in the assessment of resin resources.
The main objective of the present investigation is to explore the knowledge and the best practices of resin extraction technics in rural areas and marginal environment in order to promote the live condition of the population in these different regions by providing secure incomes and good working conditions. This could lead to the best evaluation of the good performance of the three most important pine species in North-western of Tunisia to resin extraction.
The data sheets constitute a small technical manual with the precise information so that traditional blacksmiths and small metallurgical workshops can make the tools used in Europe in the work of resin tapping using the method of bark chipping with stimulation, also known as American method.
This work seeks to analyze the causes of the decay processes observed in mixed pine forests of Pinus pinaster in Central Spain at its dry limit. This decay process is not exclusive to the area studied. If the causes of this decline are identified, better informed decisions can be made that lead to more efficient and sustainable forest management.
Effect of Short and Long Term Irrigation with Treated Wastewater on Chemical Composition and Herbicidal Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Essential Oils
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of treated wastewater short and long-term irrigation on essential oil composition from E. camaldulensis Dehn in order to detect allelopathic impacts on seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus hybridus L, Chenopodium album L, Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv and Lolium perenne L as important weeds on many crops.
The objective of the project is to provide preliminary information, both bibliographic and ethnological, chemical, genomic, biochemical, technical and economic, in order to assess the relevance of restarting the resin extraction of forest species other than maritime pine to supply the growing societal demand for terpene biomolecules.
The PinusResina initiative aims to identify/establish new value chains for the competitive and safe transformation and recovery of pine resin in high value-added products, with the mission of increasing the competitiveness and sustainability of Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea forest in Portugal, in particular by enhancing resin constituents for new fine chemistry markets - resin chemical industry as the main economic factor in pine ecosystems; toxicity assessment of derived products; analyze the variability of resin composition, biotransformation and the exploitable capacity of waste resulting from its exploitation; and evaluate the sustainability of new value chains.
Guide to the application of the territorial contract for resin tappers, an innovative institutional support formula for the natural resin sector
The autonomous resin tapper trade is precarious due to factors such as the seasonality of the activity, the fluctuation of resin prices, some resination campaigns are even below the profitability threshold, and the difficulty of accessing complementary sources of income.
To support the sustainability of the resin tapper job, this guide proposes a model of territorial contract tailored to this group of workers, which can be used by public administrations to supplement their income through the remuneration of specific commitments and recognition of the positive externalities generated.
Assess how resin tapping can induce changes in the physical, chemical, and mechanical wood properties of the trees, thus conditioning its technological suitability for certain uses and, consequently, its commercial value.
The objective of this document is to highlight the importance of different initiatives, techniques and tools that have been presented by different organizations, both public and private, through the different transfer events that have taken place within the INCREDIBLE project. The aim is to provide a global vision of the different fields to explore in the resin sector.
The main objective of this factsheet is to help technicians and forsters to recognize, in the field, insect gall wasps of Eucalyptus species.
The risk of accident is real for the resin tapper. The objective here is not to protect the worker against the accident but rather to avoid the aggravation of the consequences of an accident by alerting the emergency services as soon as possible. The Lone Worker Device is a function that can be useful for both resin tappers and forest workers.
In Portugal, traditionally, the maritime pine is the species exploited to obtain resin. The silvicultural models used assume timber as the main product and resin as the secondary product, this being a periodic and annual source of income for the owner. The description of silvicultural models that make timber and resin exploitation compatible is essential and should be based on knowledge.
The aim of the EVAFORA study is to simulate the behaviour of Pinus pinaster stands in the face of climate change by 2100 by analysing wood volume production and carbon stock data. Climatic variables (temperature increase, precipitation decrease,...) as well as the effects of silvicultural operations are integrated thanks to the GO + model. In the long term, will maritime pine remain the species best adapted to the new climatic conditions in the Landes de Gascogne massif? What silvicultural management will ensure greater stand resilience to climate change?
The traditional method of resin tapping is a very time-consuming activity since it requires the resin tapper to visit each tree every 10 to 15 days during the season. In order to develop more efficient methodologies, the results of the first experiments carried out using the new drilling technique are presented.
The study compares different formulations based on natural raw materials for plastics production and demonstrates the important role that natural resin derivatives can play in the improvement of biobased and/or biodegradable plastics performance, as an alternative to those derived from petroleum.
The final objective is to provide consumers with biodegradable plastic material of excellent technical qualities for the production of packaging and applications in construction, automotive, electronics or agriculture, in a context of environmental and economic sustainability.
Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and study of biological activities of Pinus brutia needles
The aim of this work was to enhance the extraction technique of pine needles active molecules to valorize the non used needles.
In order to ensure the sustainability of the exploitation of pine resin and to guarantee that it is guided by good management practices - promoting the vitality of pine forests and forest protection practices, contributing with relevant annual revenues - it was considered necessary, in Portugal, to define a legal regime, simplifying and concentrating all the rules in a single legal document. This legislation is an essential knowledge tool for authorities and economic agents, focusing on the production, exploitation and dynamics of resin from the forest to the industrial processing unit.
Quantify the carbon footprint of different Alepo Pine forestry scenarios (biomass and soil capture and wood products storage) in order to compare in terms of climate change mitigation.
Identify amongst the favourable forest management practices those that:
- Boost management,
- Are geared towards forest quality,
- Minimize risks,
- Ultimately allow Mediterranean forest management sector development participating the rise of the carbon market.
The attractiveness of the resin tapper's profession is a key point for the revival of natural resin extraction to be a success. The aim is to adapt the resin extraction method to reduce the difficulty of the resin tapper's work. In creating the Biogemme© method, Holiste has taken this aspect into account. This involves, in particular, the creation of an appropriate tool to mechanize the harvest.
Resin cooperativism and business diversification: ingredients for sustainable and quality forestry job
Sometimes, the profitability of a natural resource use depends more on the business model and the entrepreneurial culture on which its exploitation is based, than on productivity factors or technological development associated with the use itself.
An innovative business success case, linked to the natural resin extraction activity, such as Pinaster Servicios Medioambientales, can serve as a reference for private entrepreneurs and public decision-makers and administrators to develop and support efficient business strategies that integrate the resin activity.
The objective is to present the different initiatives that exist at the national level in Spain to characterize resin production and the potential of this resource. These initiatives, framed within the Spanish Forest Statistics defined in the Spanish Forest Law 43/2003, include both production statistics and characterization of the forest resources that either produce or could potentially produce resin.
The objective of this project is to characterize the links between the production of maritime pine resin and the properties of the station. The program is particularly interested in the influence of soil (rather than climatic variations).
The experiment is conducted on the three types of stations that dominate in the Landes: dry heath, mesophilic heath and wet heath The results could make it possible to identify the most productive and therefore more interesting areas for the resin tapper.
Describe the key elements constituting the natural resin sector in a historical resinous region, underlining the social, environmental and economic importance of resin harvesting, and its potential as an instrument of local development and environmental conservation.
The ResinApp provides the natural resin sector with a tailored tool that allows the traceability of natural resin from the forest to the factory, endowing the industry of first resin transformation with a practical system for the logistic and administrative management of the supply of natural resin, and to the resin tappers with a tool that allows better working conditions, administrative simplification and greater recognition of their work.
RESINEX Operational Group: Professionalization, knowledge transfer and innovation in the resin sector in Extremadura
The RESINEX Operational Group (OG) and its innovation project are presented, the aim of the latter being to boost the resin sector in Extremadura. This OG comprises companies, associations and research centres with close links to the Forest Sector. The promotional institutions included in this OG cover environmental management from different perspectives. This diversification enables products and processes that can be improved within the forestry sector to be identified. The beneficiary associations provide a direct link with the workers in the sector, as well as forming part of the outreach activities, providing a greater territorial scope.
The Decree-Law nº 181/2015, defines the legal regime for the resin activity and circulation of pine resin in Continental Portugal. The regime requires prior notification to the Portuguese Institute for Nature Conservation and Forestry (ICNF) of resin tapping, resin import and export, resin transportation and storage and resin used by 1st transformation industry. The communication is made online through the Resin Information System (SiResin):
The aim of the project is to develop an industrially producible bio-sourced varnish based on gum rosin and linseed oil, inspired by the ancient know-how of the violin maker Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737). The difficulty is to meet the specifications of an industrial manufacture while achieving high performance of the varnish.
The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents could be considered as very promoting products for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives.
The objective of the present investigation was mainly focused on the assessment of the biological performance of the resin. Therefore, the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the three Tunisian pine species Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea, and Pinus halepensis were conducted in order to control four pathogenic bacteria species.
The exploitation of pine forests in Tunisia which covered up to 50% of the total forest area could contribute and generate additional income sources for forest populations. Until now, the resin extraction knowledge was very limited and outdated. In the present study, the assessment of the biological performance of the resin was the main objective in order to detect the antioxidant activity of three pine species in the Tunisian forest.
After harvesting, the resin takes the form of a homogeneous mixture. Its distillation makes it possible to obtain two products: rosin and turpentine oil. The objective of extraction is to isolate and sample these compounds accurately. In other words, it is a question of having the finest possible selectivity. The second objective is not to alter the molecules and thus take full advantage of its qualities.
Researchers and forest managers interested in the study of the resin resource have difficulties in locating and accessing experimental data generated in previous projects.
This circumstance means the loss of precious research and management resources and the experimental data, obtained at the cost of significant technical and economic effort.
SustForest Resin Lab is a platform to share experimental and management data, facilitating both the offer of such data, as well as access to data generated by other agents and the possibility to request its use.
The standardisation study facilitates the inclusion of wood from resin tapped pines in the Spanish standard UNE 56544 (Visual classification of sawn wood for structural use. Coniferous wood), in order to favour its use and marketing as structural wood.
Simultaneously, the study compares the physical-mechanical properties of resinated Pinus pinaster wood against non-resin wood under the same normative parameters (UNE 56544), so that the technical buyer can evaluate which product is the most suitable for the intended application.
Within the framework of the European project SustForest Plus for the revival of gemmaging in Europe, the Centre Régional de la Propriété Forestière de Nouvelle-Aquitaine has commissioned the technological institute Forest Cellulose Wood and Furniture to analyse the impact of resin extraction on the technological characteristics of pine wood (mechanical properties, drying, aesthetics, etc).
The association "Gemme la forêt d'Aquitaine" was founded on 7 March 2014. Its aim is to revive resin extraction in the Landes de Gascogne forest. It is with this objective in mind that the members of the association have decided to come together in order to pool knowledge, research and initiatives across the entire value chain: from the forest to consumer expectations through processing.
The influence of silvicultural practices on resin production: stand density, tree diameter, and use of controlled fire
Some aspects contribute to the increase of resin tapping costs and, hence, to the reduction of resin yield, namely: the limitation on the diameter of the trees to be tapped imposed by the Portuguese legislation; low stand densities; the necessary control of understory vegetation. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if and how some pine forest management parameters affect the total production of pine resin so it can be increased through silvicultural practices and, thus, compensate for the rise in some costs associated with the resin activity.
The study advances in the socio-labour reality knowledge of the Spanish workers dedicated to the resin extraction, and in the group perception about aspects related to entrepreneurship and sectorial problems.
To this end, three key aspects are elucidated:
- The definition of the typical resin workers profiles, and the socio-labour situations that characterise each one of them.
- The study of the key factors for the incorporation and the abandonment of the resin activity.
- The sounding of sectorial or professional aspects that the workers consider most relevant to be addressed at present.
To explore options for the management of pinaster pine stands that lead to increased resin production and therefore improved profitability, thus reducing dependence on the economic conditions of the market.