“Aromas del encinar - AROEN”, in Spanish language, literally means “aromas from the holm oak forests” and is a family-run project born with the aim to enhance the sustainable management of this ecosystem, very frequent in the Madrid municipality. In fact, this ecosystem, in the last decades, has been often abandoned due to low profitability. The project is based on strong resource management and biodiversity conservation plan, promoting wild-collected aromatic and medicinal plant goods.
Anthyllis barba-jovis is a rare evergreen shrub belonging to the family of Fabaceae and could be found in different habitats, especially along steep rocky cliffs. It is an endemic species originating from the west-central regions of the Mediterranean basin. It’s located in France, Italy, Croatia, Algeria, and Tunisia and grows on low altitudes of the Mediterranean littoral rocks. The main objective of this work is to control the seed propagation techniques of Anthyllis barba-Jovis L.
A territorial and multi-stakeholder organization for sustainable harvesting of Arnica in its mountain stubble habitat (Hautes Vosges)
A multi-stakeholder approach has been initiated in the Hautes Vosges on stubble in the Markstein - Grand Ballon sector to preserve the resource of Arnica montana ssp montana and its natural habitat (the "high stubble"), to maintain the economic issues that represents its picking, while reconciling the other uses of high altitude grasslands where this plant grows : cattle grazing, grass harvest, outdoor sports (skiing, gliding).
The ultimate objectives of this work were to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants agents in the food industry. This study is the first to investigate secondary metabolites and biological activities of barks and leaves of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. subsp. angustifolia (Oleaceae), Tunisian native tree, from two provenances (Béja and Nefza) were investigated using two solvents extracts (ethanol and distilled water).
Pine species are considered as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Pinus nigra Arnold is one of the most known medicinal plants in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to determine, for the first time, the bioactive compounds such as the total phenols, flavonoids and tannins and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of needles collected from nineteen samples corresponding to different provenances of black pine from different regions which have been planted and grown in Northwestern Tunisia.
The purpose of the traceability system is to link the final product made from aromatic or medicinal plants to the place of origin, specie of origin, method of harvesting, harvester, processor and producer. By having a QR code placed on a particular end product, the consumer can easily obtain more information than those described on the label of the product, and can choose which product is most relevant to their needs.
Barcoding is an important tool towards the solution of traceability issues. Plant.ID is a collaborative network within Europe and addresses the challenges of plant identification in 15 different projects. We focus on common edible, poisonous, allergenic and pharmaceutical plants of the Greek flora. Through sequencing of barcoding regions and metabarcoding techniques, specific barcoding markers will be developed to be used either with PCR and/or with the High Resolution Melting Analysis for species-specific identification.
The sulla is a herbaceous bi or multiannual Mediterranean forage species. It’s used as hay, ensilage, or pasture. The sulla is a species that valorizes poor soils and helps in restoring their fertility. Also, it’s a useful plant regarding restoring and promoting eroded soil. The main objective of this work is to master the techniques of multiplication and conservation of this species.
Wild plant ingredients are in thousands of products we consume every day: pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, supplements and wellbeing products, food, spices, drinks and also homewares. Wild collection (WC) is an important economic activity for some of the most impoverished communities. In addition, it often takes place in important wildlife habitats and reservoirs of biodiversity. Then, WC activity is facing several environmental and social challenges. Different organisations are certifying this activity, but with different purposes.
Medicago arborea, a naturalized species, was selected for its pastoral and high ecological interest: it is a nitrogen fixer and cold, drought, and salt-tolerant plant species (Sibole et al. 2003). It tolerates frost conditions and low temperatures as well as drought conditions and high temperatures. It’s an important species regarding its symbiosis with nitrogen fixation bacteria. The species had always demonstrated its importance as a forage species and its quality in feeding the animal. The main objective of this work is to master the techniques for multiplying and conserving this species.
Sideritis sp. are among the most overhavested in Greece and many wild populations are threatened. It is used for the preparation of herbal tea, known as Mountain tea which is widely consumed due to its properties known from folk medicine. The traditional use of 4 Sideritis sp. has been adopted by HMPC in a herbal monograph (1) and several studies have been reported on its pharmacological properties. The overharvesting has put a pressure onto its populations. The MOUNTEA-CONSE project (2) aimed at the development of conservation and sustainable exploitation activities for Sideritis populations.
The role and importance of organic production lie in the sustainable management of natural resources (preserves soil fertility, flora and fauna, water and atmosphere), forbids the use of chemical means of protection and fertilizers, restoring balance to nature and thus preserves biodiversity, encourages rural development and facilitates the development of small family farms, contributes to the development of eco-tourism and eco-villages and thus links agricultural, tourism and craft activities.
Tzoumakers is an open lab for communities to cooperatively design and manufacture tools for small-scale agricultural production. Our vision is to create such sites in both villages and cities where citizens may seize technology into their own hands. These sites may be supported by municipalities and/or by multi-stakeholder cooperatives.
Wild species must be recovered and their uses incorporated daily as normal. We must document the traditional uses of vegetation and promote actions aimed at citizens to publicise them. The research and dissemination axes are essential, but they must be accompanied by the development of business models that also allow the commercialisation of products. In Catalonia (Spain) there are several associations and companies that work to value them, either in the gastronomic field or as a tourist activity.
Essential oils value chain in Tunisian forests: Conflicts between inclusiveness and marketing performance
Identify drivers and barriers for developing the Tunisian Essential Oil market and new growth strategies to promote the sector and become more competitive in the international market.
Evaluation of the biological activities of natural extract from some species of Portulaca grown in Tunisia
Purslane is known for her gastronomic and medicinal excellences effects. It is considered a miraculous plant with healing properties (Hwess.H et al., 2017). It is very used in traditional medicine, but not well exploited in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to raise awareness also on this wild plant, we have decided to compare many provenances of puslane, using maceration extraction.
The main objective of this guide and its booklets for each species is to provide the pickers with knowledge of specific aromatics and medicinal plants and to serve as support for their training to adopt respectful practices guaranteeing sustainable management of the natural resources.
Its construction is based on a collection of knowledge and practices of pickers, analyzed with a group of scientists with regard to sustainable resource management (threats and renewal challenges).
The objective is also to enhance the picking profession by disseminating its knowledge and know-how.
The Lavandula is an important species due to medicinal and aromatic properties. The local species population is suffering from Anthropozoic pressure improved by cutting and animal scuttling which made it essential to preserve the species population. Our work aims to test some ways of specie propagation.
“Traditional" or "wild" products such as medicinal plants, aromatic herbs and edible mushrooms (including truffles) are part of an emerging mass market that often targets rare or protected species. Orchids, although they are protected by legislation on a national and global scale, are a good example of such a product. Here, we discuss how we can manage the effect of harvesting on wild orchid populations, as our study points to an urgent need to find sustainable management solutions for such species of commercial interest. The dynamics and spatial characteristics of populations are extremely important for applications in conservation; to that end, we introduce an integrated approach that examines the impact of salep harvesting on orchid populations in Epirus (NW Greece).
Impact of the production method on the gentian resource and its regeneration - The sustainable development approach of the Gentian sector
The Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea) is a wild plant harvested for its roots at the age of 20 to 30 years old. It is highly valued but little protected. A large part of the production is exported from the source in its raw state. The "Mission for the sustainable management of gentian resources in the Massif Central", a project promoted by the harvesters, helps the different members of the sector to organize themselves to work on good production practices and to ensure the sustainable use of the plant. This work is enhanced by a parallel project to create a "Sustainable Gentian" brand.
In most cases, the cultivation and production of lavender in Croatia is not a permanent job, but rather small plantations that generate additional household income. A large proportion of small producers, therefore, sell raw materials or semi-finished products resulting in lower economic profits. If they were able to produce the final product and market it then the economic profit would be higher. Increasing economic profit would certainly be a good incentive to increase production, and thus growing aromatic and medicinal plants would become a core business and would no longer be a hobby or source of additional income.
One of the preconditions for successful cultivation and increase of production of medicinal and aromatic plants in Croatia is in any case knowledge of their ecological characteristics. However, previous studies of medicinal and aromatic plants in Croatia have not systematically included the islands of Krk, Cres and Pag, despite the fact that these islands are areas of plant richness. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the abundance and diversity and ecological characteristics of wild medicinal and aromatic plants of the rocky pastures of these islands.
Under this framework, the Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, UOI, developed a web database of medicinal plants of the region of Epirus and the mainland of Greece, that contain all basic information related to the morphology of the herbs, official and popular names, taxonomy, pharmacological properties, side effects and toxicity, etc.
The users can retrieve information related to a particular medicinal plant using its official or popular name, the active compound of interest, the disease to be treated, or the region the herb grows. For every herb there are characteristic pictures and drownings, reports on pharmacological/therapeutic and toxicity effects, methods of administration and references.
Medicinal sage is an native plant species of Dalmatia spread throughout the Mediterranean. In the Republic of Croatia along the entire coast, as well as in the entire Dalmatia. Sage is first and foremost a medicinal plant, but it is also used as a spice. In Dalmatia, sage was used long before the classical period, in the nature its leaves were collected from which essential oil was obtained, and the beginnings of cultivation date to the early 20th century on the island of Hvar. Today in Dalmatia there is no production of dried leaves and essential sage oil, except to a lesser extent on Hvar and for personal needs.
Methodology to assess the situation of a medicinal and aromatic plant species to apply a sustainable management in a specific context
A large number of the medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) on the market come from wild collection and some of them are being overexploited or exploited without following proper practices. Establishing an adequate management could maintain the use of some species without compromising their conservation and obtain a benefit for the rural community.
In order to collect, it is necessary to evaluate the situation of that species in the place where it is going to be collected to estimate if it can be considered a “resource” or not, and to do it following an adequate methodology.
Eucalyptus is an enormous and fascinating genus with over 700 species. Most of Eucalyptus species are known as aromatic plants and with medicinal and melliferous uses. Therefore, it’s important to valorize and ensure a continuous regeneration of Eucalyptus species. In this prospect, the main focus of this work was to evaluate seeds viability used to regenerate forests and in order to elevate its production of NWFP.
The Periploca angustifolia is a native shrub widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. This species is threatened because of its medicinal properties, its pastoral interest and its role in the fight against soil erosion. The main objective of this work is to master the germination and multiplication techniques of Periploca angustifolia L.
Private forest is often very fragmented: forestry operations and forest products marketing are difficult on small areas. Owners have organized themselves into a forest management association (ASLGF) to group their plots into a single management unit. Their objective is to jointly lead the development of their forests. In addition to harvesting wood, they also registered collective production of essential oils of Scots pine. They wish to label themselves as a Forest Economic and Ecological Interest Group (GIEEF).
• Establish, by compilation of data obtained from collectors and producers, a list of plant species picked for artisanal or industrial production chains,
• Referencing these species according to their validated scientific name,
• Provide some indicators of the risks that could weigh on these species.
Project PyCup: responsible practices for professional picking. An example of sustainable supply in AMP value chain
The PyCuP project is supporting the Pyrenean stakeholders in their reflexion and efforts toward a regulation of picking practices, for a sustainable valuation of the local wild plant resources. It aims at answering the main questions of the public about the role of such activities in a “wild mountain”. Therefore, the project creates awareness about the issues of these natural resources’ exploitation.
Seasonal variation of antioxidative molecules and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in Tunisia
In light of the great global interest in PAM as a source of active ingredients. So, it is important to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis by evaluating of some biochemical responses in three sites Mount of Zaghouan (DZ), Mount of Mansour (DM) and Mount of Sarej (DS) and to compare their behavior in the three seasons (spring, summer and autumn).
Seasonal variation of photosynthetic parameters of Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in natural Tunisian Aleppo pine forest
Understanding and quantify the role played by undergrowth in the resilience and adaptation to climate change of the pine forest in Tunisia, by comparing the state of vegetation of the undergrowth species of a pine forest Aleppo at different bioclimatic stages in the southern Mediterranean of Tunisia (Mount of Zaghouan (upper subhumid climate with mild and temperate winters), Mount of Mansour (semi-arid lower to upper arid) and Mount of Sarej (semi-arid upper semi-arid with cold and temperate winter variations)).
The Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum L.) is a Mediterranean and West Asian species considered in Tunisia as rare with only three locations. The ecological importance of the species as a broadleaf and its effects on its natural ecosystem leads us to get a clear idea of the best way of propagation using seeds.
The Myrtus communis L. is an endemic species appreciated traditionally for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Improving the multiplication and propagation methods of the common myrtle is the most important objective of this paper. The work was held to conserve the species and its decreasing populations due to the lake of management, overcutting and Anthropozoic pressure in its location area.
Sustainable wild collection of bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.) in the Pyrenees as a conservation practice
The aim of the experimental work was to study the aerial biomass production of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi present in the Pyrenees under different environmental conditions (altitude, slope and orientation, substrate, tree cover and population abundance) and to analyse the effects of the season in which it is collected (autumn or spring), the intensity (0%, 25%, 50% and 100% of the population) and the frequency of collection on the regeneration capacity of the species, in order to be able to propose some guidelines for a sustainable collection of bearberry in the Pyrenees.
AFC is the French Association of professionals wild plants pickers. It was created in 2011 to bring together professionals of wild plants picking and to promote this profession.
It defends sustainable commercial harvesting and a responsible profession.
It wishes to ensure the representativeness of the pickers with other operators in the sectors and the public authorities.
The co-management of forest resources in Tunisia: A new approach for sustainable development in the sector of AMP
In Tunisia all forest areas are public: in order to use forest products, producers and firms should go through a tendering system subject to Article 18 of the Tunisian forestry code, organized each year by the Tunisian Forestry authority. Small firms and the local populations are facing many difficulties to use available resources legally. The DGF is promoting a new form of sustainable management for forest resources: Concluding contracts between the organized local community and the administration to improve their livelihood and to protect forestal areas.
This work aims to promote beekeeping activity in rural areas where eucalyptus can play a leading role as nectar species. This objective necessarily involves the identification of eucalyptus species of melliferous interest and the selection of the most successful species in terms of abundance of flowering, its duration, and its spreading throughout the year.
The Val di Non and Val di Sole Apples and Flavours route: a successful territorial marketing strategy
Diversify the tourism offer in Trentino Alto-Adige (Italy), a famous destination that attracts thousands of tourists for its mountain trails and hundreds of miles of ski slopes. A diversification of local tourism offer, involving local stakeholders and supported by a specific territorial marketing strategy, can bring benefits to small farmers, restaurants and many other local actors, especially in the marginal area of the region. One of the main goals of the "route" is to assure a constant flux of tourists all year long, offering interesting activities and events in all seasons.
In the past, herbs were the only cure for the disease, and learning about herbs was based only on human experience. They found the medicine in their environment, where they learned to recognize the plants and to determine how to use it. Knowledge and experience have been passed down from generation to generation, so today there are many who, thanks to the knowledge and experience of their loved ones, have become successful users and growers of medicinal plants, although unfortunately some of the knowledge about medicinal plants has probably fallen into oblivion, given that no one ever wrote it down.
Traditional use of wild and naturalized plants as a potential for innovation in the development of rural areas of Croatia
The main objective of this factsheet is to determine the possibilities and directions of innovative commercialization of wild and naturalized plants based on market trends and ethnobotanical research. One of the secondary goals is to preserve local botanical and other knowledge related to the recognition and application of wild and naturalized plants in the areas of Drenov Bok and Vela Luka by conducting field research.
Tunisian Salvia officinalis essential oils: Variations regarding plant organs, harvest season and drying conditions
This study presents an assessment of essential oils amounts and quality obtained from Tunisian Salvia officinalis and its variations regarding the plant organs, the harvest season and the plant's drying process conditions. Three drying processes were tested, natural air drying, hot air convective drying at two temperature 40 and 60°C and microwave drying at 218 W.
What solutions for the certification of wild AMP picking? Prospective study within the FloreS project.
The FloreS project has allowed the organization of a participative workshop, to analyse different types of labelling and certification that could meet the guarantees expected for wild plants’ picking. This workshop brought together researchers, certifying bodies, referent pickers and other stakeholders from the AMP sector.
Benefits and limits of third-party certification have been discussed, as well as options about participatory guarantee systems have been analysed. These element contributed to the construction of a charter for responsible professional pickers.
Plešivičko gorje (Plesivica hills) is located in the far eastern part of Žumberak-Samoborsko gorje Nature Park, near the towns of Samobor and Jastrebarsko. The highest parts of this hill area are wooded, and beneath this area there are meadows which are close to arable land - fields, orchards and vineyards. The aim of this study was to determine the flora of meadows in Plešivica hills and to isolate and describe medicinal, aromatic and honey plants.