In recent decades, new cork oak plantation areas have been established in Portugal, not only in the traditional areas of distribution of the species but also in the northern parts. Historical records show that the species was formerly present here, and climatic thresholds suggest a possible occurrence. Cork oak site productivity, assessed through site index, was modelled in relation to soil and climate variables. The models were developed to estimate and map the site index value along the cork oak potential distribution area in Portugal.
The main response of natural Aleppo pine trees to drought has been studied in three sites on the North-western of Tunisia, in order to assess their capacity to adapt to climate change and overcome the water challenge. This research was based on the evaluation of some physiological traits (xylem conductivity, water potential..), the soil moisture, the water content, and the foliar gas exchange (photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance).
In order to be able to follow the evolution of cork oak dieback in the French cork-producing regions in the context of climate change, the South-East Forest Health Interregional Pole has set up since 2013 an annual health monitoring network (defoliation, tree mortality, branch mortality, etc.) of 33 permanent plots of 20 trees each. The study covers the period 2013-2019.
- Evaluation of spring shoot phenology (timing of budburst) variation as a function of seed geographic origin.
- Understanding the adaptation potential of cork oak populations to biotic stress, assessing if earlier/later budburst timings have consequences on the amount of leaf pest damages.
- Identify the most frequent pests occurring on the damaged leaves. Relate budburst and plant–pest interactions with climatic conditions.
Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is one of the most drought-tolerant pine species and it is distributed over large drought-prone Mediterranean regions. The determination of the water balance of the soil-crop-climate and its fluctuation is difficult to achieve, due to the spatial variation in site conditions (Schiller and Cohen, 1998). The objectives of this study are to (1) estimate crop water requirements (ETc) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of Tunisian Aleppo pine and (2) study the impact of climate change on water balance, using the WEAP-MABIA Module (Yates et al.,2005a; 2005b; Jabloun and Sahli, 2012) based on the FAO Irrigation and Drainage publication 56 (Allen et al., 1998).
The aim of the EVAFORA study is to simulate the behaviour of Pinus pinaster stands in the face of climate change by 2100 by analysing wood volume production and carbon stock data. Climatic variables (temperature increase, precipitation decrease,...) as well as the effects of silvicultural operations are integrated thanks to the GO + model. In the long term, will maritime pine remain the species best adapted to the new climatic conditions in the Landes de Gascogne massif? What silvicultural management will ensure greater stand resilience to climate change?
Quantify the carbon footprint of different Alepo Pine forestry scenarios (biomass and soil capture and wood products storage) in order to compare in terms of climate change mitigation.
Identify amongst the favourable forest management practices those that:
- Boost management,
- Are geared towards forest quality,
- Minimize risks,
- Ultimately allow Mediterranean forest management sector development participating the rise of the carbon market.
The objective of this study is to establish a vigilance map to identify the areas where cork oak is adapted or inadapted to the forest station in a context of changing climate, through the BioClimSol tool developed by CNPF. This tool allows the collection and analysis of field data (soil, climate, sanitary conditions, ...). The vigilance map, by forecasting and locating the risks of decline of the Corsican cork oaks, will help managers take management decisions. The objective is to make silvicultural proposals in order to prevent and limit the risks of dieback.
Cork harvesting, every 10 to 15 years depending on the region, requires trees in good phytosanitary conditions and is a potential source of stress, especially if debarking is poorly done. Hence the interest in having a tool to assess the trees phytosanitary conditions, which can be used as a decision support tool when carrying out silvicultural operations. This tool is based on a visual diagnostic method called Archi, developed by CNPF. ARCHI is based on the reading of tree crown architecture using a specific identification key referring to different architectural types related to resilience capacities.
Threats and concerns in the management of stone pine in Portugal: insights from a survey among stakeholders
The forest area of stone pine, Pinus pinea, has increased significantly in Portugal in the last 30 years, following the same trend of other Mediterranean countries. At the same time, forest stakeholders report losses in cone production and yield and question on the best management practices to face a already changing climate.
During a Science to Practice event entitled "Stone pine and pine nuts: more knowledge for a better management" held in Lisbon in October 2019, we conducted a survey were we were able to assess the stakeholders' concerns with the pine nut value chain and identify research priorities.