The aim is to present a methodology that allows the optimal management of Pinus pinea stands to be determined from an economic perspective when both cone and timber production are considered. Thus, a simulation-optimisation method that implements the stochastic masting model together with an optimisation algorithm would help forest managers to optimise stand management under different price scenarios and market conditions.
Hence , the challenge is to integrate a cone yield model into a simulation-optimisation system which is capable to predict expected cone harvests and seed yields in a certain year, based on the climatic conditions of previous years.
Adding knowledge to the impact and ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, on stone pine
There is still a substantial lack of knowledge about the effective impact and the ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglosus occidentalis, on the Mediterranean stone pine. Thus, the overall objective was to characterize the impact and study the ecology of this invasive insect in stone pine by (1) characterizing its damage on seeds with shell; (2) testing its preference between stone pine and other Mediterranean pines; (3) evaluating damage in Stone pine seed orchards under different management strategies and (4) inferring invasion routes of this insect in the Iberian Peninsula using genetic and field data.
Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is one of the most drought-tolerant pine species and it is distributed over large drought-prone Mediterranean regions. The determination of the water balance of the soil-crop-climate and its fluctuation is difficult to achieve, due to the spatial variation in site conditions (Schiller and Cohen, 1998). The objectives of this study are to (1) estimate crop water requirements (ETc) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of Tunisian Aleppo pine and (2) study the impact of climate change on water balance, using the WEAP-MABIA Module (Yates et al.,2005a; 2005b; Jabloun and Sahli, 2012) based on the FAO Irrigation and Drainage publication 56 (Allen et al., 1998).
At a first glance, imported Asiatic and genuine Mediterranean pine nuts seem to be similar in size, colour and aspect. Cheaper Chinese chestnuts can also be confused with European chestnuts, when botanic species and origin are not declared on the label, despite this information being mandatory by UNECE marketing standards (2013).
However, aspects such as nutritional values and processing quality, sustainability of collection from wild and of course the taste are highly important. Consumer awareness is vital in this regard. Hence , supply chain actors in the Mediterranean should work together to improve the product profiles of their gourmet nuts, quite distinct from the cheaper imports.
Climate change is affecting the health and productivity of the Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea) stands in the Spanish Northern Plateau. The main research lines for adapting this forest ecosystrems and mitigating the effect of climate change are presented. The finding should lead to recommendations for the future management of these stands.
Quantifying carbon stocks in Pinus pinea stands: simple allometric models using easily measurable tree variables
Allometric models establish relationships between tree morphological parameters and the respective biomass in its various components, allowing to make forest carbon estimates. In this sense, this study aims to develop models for the stone pine (Pinus pinea) gathering biomass information from sampled trees in Portugal, Spain, and Italy. These models use simple-to-measure tree variables (diameter at breast height – d, and total height - h) and are suitable for obtaining carbon estimates of aboveground biomass and roots in stone pines across the Mediterranean region.
The high prices paid for genuine Mediterranean pine nuts kernels as gourmet nuts are due to an sustained demand on the world market, not met by the production harvested from the wild. The use of grafted Mediterranean stone pine trees allows landowners to establish profitable new plantations with precocious cone yields. For this purpose, genotypes have been selected in Spain and Portugal. Here we present 15 clones registered in Spain with estimated gains of around +10-30% in mean cone yield.
The success story of the company Santiago Perea S.L. in the processing of pine nuts in Andalusia (Southern Spain) is presented here. The commitment of this company to innovation since its creation in 1950 has led to its outstanding positioning in the sector. The main milestones in the history of the company and the most notable elements of its business model are described below.
In addition to their traditional local use in human and animal food, the fruits of the carob tree have a high commercial value in industrial transformation. The demand for fruits and seeds is growing significantly and their commercial value is increasing. It is also an undemanding species, since it is found in various bioclimatic levels (humid, subhumid, semi-arid and arid) and on poor and skeletal soils. The objective of this work is to explore a panel of varieties to be characterized by describing the tree, fruits, and seeds in an illustrated form.