Resin is a natural product that has multiple applications and is highly demanded in the chemical industry. As a non-timber forest product, exploitation of the abundant pine resin in Tunisian forests (50% of the forest area) can contribute to a bioeconomy and can generate additional income for forest populations.
Τhe last 15 years, mushrooms became valuable part of Greek consumers’ diet. New mushroom plants have launched, special cultivated varieties ( Lentinula, Hericium, etc.) have been considerably growing and many young peoplemake a living hunting truffles and wild mushrooms . Αfter the economic crisis of 2009, people living in big cities returned to their villages starting business in forestry or agriculture. “Dirfis mushrooms” was established in 2003 in Mount Dirfis (Euboea) by two agronomists-mycologists (Agricultural University of Athens), Lefteris Lachouvaris and Thanassis Mastrogiannis, representing a success story of the hidden potential of the mushroom and truffles related activities.
The Natural History Museum of Meteora and Mushroom Museum has been established in December 2014, in Kalambaka, Greece. It is a private museum that stems from the collaboration of three people sharing the same interests about nature. The Museum’s collections consist of about 350 species of animals and 250 species of mushrooms and their natural habitats that are presented into dioramas. Beyond its general objectives (to highlight natural heritage, enhance environmental awareness, organize educational activities etc.), the Museum aims to focus on the closest relationship among mushrooms, nature, and the people, but also to highlight their unknown, but high nutritional value.
Anthyllis barba-jovis is a rare evergreen shrub belonging to the family of Fabaceae and could be found in different habitats, especially along steep rocky cliffs. It is an endemic species originating from the west-central regions of the Mediterranean basin. It’s located in France, Italy, Croatia, Algeria, and Tunisia and grows on low altitudes of the Mediterranean littoral rocks. The main objective of this work is to control the seed propagation techniques of Anthyllis barba-Jovis L.
In recent decades, new cork oak plantation areas have been established in Portugal, not only in the traditional areas of distribution of the species but also in the northern parts. Historical records show that the species was formerly present here, and climatic thresholds suggest a possible occurrence. Cork oak site productivity, assessed through site index, was modelled in relation to soil and climate variables. The models were developed to estimate and map the site index value along the cork oak potential distribution area in Portugal.
Adding knowledge to the impact and ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis, on stone pine
There is still a substantial lack of knowledge about the effective impact and the ecology of the seed bug, Leptoglosus occidentalis, on the Mediterranean stone pine. Thus, the overall objective was to characterize the impact and study the ecology of this invasive insect in stone pine by (1) characterizing its damage on seeds with shell; (2) testing its preference between stone pine and other Mediterranean pines; (3) evaluating damage in Stone pine seed orchards under different management strategies and (4) inferring invasion routes of this insect in the Iberian Peninsula using genetic and field data.
In order to attract new customers, especially foreign buyers, it is necessary to move away from the usual things and take a step forward. The advancement of technology enables customers to easily access the Internet and inform themselves about various products, and can easily buy it through the web store. It is therefore important to provide customers with something new that is not so common and to tell them the story of the product and to provide them with an overall experience that will go beyond just buying the product.
Along with the latest advances in the resin sector for improving resin production, such as forest tree breeding, innovative harvesting technology, etc, prescribed fire is also analysed as a tool for increasing resin yield in Pinus pinaster stands. The results of this study are summarized below.
The ultimate objectives of this work were to find new potential sources of natural antioxidants agents in the food industry. This study is the first to investigate secondary metabolites and biological activities of barks and leaves of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. subsp. angustifolia (Oleaceae), Tunisian native tree, from two provenances (Béja and Nefza) were investigated using two solvents extracts (ethanol and distilled water).
Pine species are considered as a natural source of antioxidant compounds. Pinus nigra Arnold is one of the most known medicinal plants in the Mediterranean countries. The aim of this study was to determine, for the first time, the bioactive compounds such as the total phenols, flavonoids and tannins and to evaluate the antioxidant potential of needles collected from nineteen samples corresponding to different provenances of black pine from different regions which have been planted and grown in Northwestern Tunisia.
The selection of forest species and the analysis of their behavior variability, considering the main environmental factors, remains a major concern for the forester in Tunisia. This work is prepared to answer the following question: for reforestation needs, which is the most suitable species to reach a sustainable and productive plantation? The answer can be provided in the elimination trials in the arboretum. The arboretums offer an ideal experimental support to know the requirements of the forest species and to make a selection in favor of the best adapted and the most efficient species.
Assessment of resin tapping in pine forests of Castilla y León considering social and environmental values
The pine forests on the sandy plains of inner Spain represent a singular habitat and ecosystem in very poor site conditions. In addition to economic revenue from sustainable biological resources, resin tapping provides other ecological and social benefits from these forests. The present study, resulting from the SUDOE project SustForest, analyses the inclusion of these factors in the assessment of resin resources.
The main objective of the present investigation is to explore the knowledge and the best practices of resin extraction technics in rural areas and marginal environment in order to promote the live condition of the population in these different regions by providing secure incomes and good working conditions. This could lead to the best evaluation of the good performance of the three most important pine species in North-western of Tunisia to resin extraction.
The sulla is a herbaceous bi or multiannual Mediterranean forage species. It’s used as hay, ensilage, or pasture. The sulla is a species that valorizes poor soils and helps in restoring their fertility. Also, it’s a useful plant regarding restoring and promoting eroded soil. The main objective of this work is to master the techniques of multiplication and conservation of this species.
Characterization of Melia azedarach. L (leaves and fruits) and their insecticidal effects (Aphis punicea)
Melia azedarach, also called Lilas of indes, classified under the family of Meliaceae. It is an ornamental tree native to India, presented in several countries of tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Tunisia. The objective of this study is the valorization of plant extracts in the manufacture of organic products to minimize the import of chemicals to human health and the environment.
The objective of the project was to implement in France a classical biological program against the chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Dk), using releases of the exotic parasitoid Torymus sinensis. The expected outcome of this project were (i) the permanent establishment of the parasitoid and (ii) an efficient and long-term control of the pest.
Some experiments conducted at the Institute of Agri-Food Research and Technology of Catalonia (IRTA), aimed at evaluating the productive capacity of Stone pine clones from different Spanish provenance regions (PR) under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heideman attack, are presented. This pest is severely affecting Stone pine stands in the Iberian Peninsula, hence, identifying genotypes less susceptible to L. occidentalis attack is an important line of research in this area.
Among essential oils, Eucalyptus oil, is one of the most useful as it is easily extractable commercially (industrial value) and possesses a wide range of desirable properties worth exploiting for pest management. Eucalyptus oils are mainly extracted from leaves which can be attacked by gall wasps as Ophelimus maskelli. Induced galls can affect the essential oil production.
This work aims to determine the role of the parasitoid Closterocerus chamaeleon in the biological control of its host O. maskelli.
Medicago arborea, a naturalized species, was selected for its pastoral and high ecological interest: it is a nitrogen fixer and cold, drought, and salt-tolerant plant species (Sibole et al. 2003). It tolerates frost conditions and low temperatures as well as drought conditions and high temperatures. It’s an important species regarding its symbiosis with nitrogen fixation bacteria. The species had always demonstrated its importance as a forage species and its quality in feeding the animal. The main objective of this work is to master the techniques for multiplying and conserving this species.
Chestnut is a seasonal nut only produced in some regions of Portugal. It is a product whose value is very scattered across the various elements of the marketing chain, with little, and very concentrated in time, internal consumption. It is, therefore, vital to increase and retain its added value and make this market less dependent on the seasonality of the fruit. One way is by promoting new forms of consumption in and out of season, through the processing and innovative uses of the chestnut.
The role and importance of organic production lie in the sustainable management of natural resources (preserves soil fertility, flora and fauna, water and atmosphere), forbids the use of chemical means of protection and fertilizers, restoring balance to nature and thus preserves biodiversity, encourages rural development and facilitates the development of small family farms, contributes to the development of eco-tourism and eco-villages and thus links agricultural, tourism and craft activities.
In the life cycle of cork, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) gases are released from biological material combustion or decomposition as well as from burning fossil fuels. The biogenic carbon emissions from forest-based products are usually not included because they are released into the atmosphere during the processing and end-of-life stages. The carbon footprint for the cork sector should be considered at different stages, from forest management activities, across the manufacturing processes and product distribution, to the product end-of-life.
Improving the competitiveness of the cork oak producers, by improving the quality of the production process and the sustainability of the cork oak forest, by introducing new innovative methods and practices applied to the various stages of the production process and commercialization of the raw material, are essential to guarantee the vitality in the sector.
The profitability of the debarking, transportation and storage operations by promoting or increasing the efficiency of the processes along the potential value chain, with bring greater valorization of the raw material and improvements at the commercialization stage.
It is not possible to separate the cumulative effect of: climate change, soil conditions, cultural practices and the presence of biotic agents, the way the trees die, due to progressive decrepitude or sudden death, as well as the physiological processes involved that are necessarily different and must be treated differently when deciding on the urgency and the period of dead trees felling, the management of the wood material, forestry residues and subsequent options for afforestation, natural regeneration or conversion to another species.
This factsheet aims to highlight some of the pests that cause mortality and the different management of the dead trees according to the biotic agent present.
The cork oak forest management involves interventions in the understory with the following objectives: reduction of the fire risk, operationality of the cork harvesting, promotion of cork oak recruitment and reduction of competition for water and nutrients between trees, herbs and shrubs. The techniques currently available for the forest producer to carry out these operations are: the practice of grazing and / or mechanized interventions (harrowing, shrub cutter, shredding). The choice among several mechanical techniques should consider cork oak sustainability and the potential impacts over soil & plants.
CULTURTRUF project : Effect of cultural techniques on water balance in truffle orchards and truffle life cycle
CulturTruf was financed by FranceAgriMer (French Agriculture Ministry) from 2016 to 2019. The objective of this project is to understand how water balance, truffle production, and soil truffle DNA evolve in different orchards of T. melanosporum, T. aestivum, T. aestivum var. uncinatum according to technical itineraries adapted to different climates. The aim is to optimize water management in truffle plantations by coupling basic and applied research approaches. In this sense, this project fully responds to a strong demand from the sector to adapt truffle production to climate change.
The main response of natural Aleppo pine trees to drought has been studied in three sites on the North-western of Tunisia, in order to assess their capacity to adapt to climate change and overcome the water challenge. This research was based on the evaluation of some physiological traits (xylem conductivity, water potential..), the soil moisture, the water content, and the foliar gas exchange (photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance).
Greece is a country with dramatic geological relief which makes it one of the richest in biodiversity and habitat types countries in Europe. So far over 100 fungal species with below ground fruitbodies have been discovered in Greece, among them 13 new species for Science, confirming high diversity also in fungi. As we have just began to explore fungi with subterranean fruiting bodies, we are confident that many new species will be recorded in Greece in the near future. The protection of forest ecosystems is vital for hypogeous fungi, such as valuable truffles' conservation.
Effect of Short and Long Term Irrigation with Treated Wastewater on Chemical Composition and Herbicidal Activity of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. Essential Oils
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of treated wastewater short and long-term irrigation on essential oil composition from E. camaldulensis Dehn in order to detect allelopathic impacts on seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus hybridus L, Chenopodium album L, Echinochloa crus-galli (L) Beauv and Lolium perenne L as important weeds on many crops.
In rural areas of Tunisia, the average wood consumption per household and per year is between 1.8 and 5.9 tones. The highest consumption was noted in the forest regions of Sejnane, Boussalem and Jendouba. Results show that traditional bread baking represents 60 to 70% of the percentage of wood consumed in households. With a view to satisfying the increasingly growing needs for ﬁrewood and charcoal in rural areas, we have initiated a selection research program oriented towards more intensive wood production including wood that can be used for energy purposes. In this work, we propose to compare the energy performance of 11 species of Eucalyptus.
Enhancement of Croatian forest ecosystem services through assessment of fungal diversity based on DNA barcoding with special emphasis to Tuber eastivum (summer truffle)
Enhancement of Croatian forest ecosystem services through assessment of fungal diversity based on DNA barcoding is a four-year project financed by the Croatian Science Foundation with the objective of exploring fungal diversity of Croatian forests through the DNA barcoding methods, aimed to analyze its impact on forest ecosystem services. Research institute ‘Ruđer Bošković’ from Zagreb, Croatia is the lead partner on this project that started in October, 2018.
The current exploitation of rosemary and myrtle (native species with relatively high yield of EO) occupies an important place in the forestry sector and a significant socio-economic interest. Eucalyptus trees can play a predominant and substantial role thanks to their richness in essential oils, their composition and their commercial value.
This objective necessarily involves the identification of eucalyptus EO species and the selection of the most efficient in terms of the yield of essential oils and the presence of the most dominant active compounds which are preferentially sought by the industrialists.
The European Union defines, through several documents, the cultivation and collection of mushrooms and truffles as the primary product in agriculture. There are a number of measures in place in Croatia to encourage primary agricultural production, but truffle farming is not one of them. In order to offer the rural parts of Croatia new economic activity, which can be extremely profitable, it is necessary to draw up a plan for the implementation of the European Directive and to adapt the relevant laws on the basis of professional and scientific research.
- Defining a simple and reliable methodology for the quantitative evaluation of stacked cork at cork parks that will serve as a mean of controlling the quantity weighed previously,
- Create a database at each cork park to determine the weight of a cubic meter of cork reproduction.
- Train forest technicians to generalize this method on all cork parks in Tunisia from the 2020 harvest.
In the current context in which it can be perceived that climate change is already a reality, one of the issues that most concerns the different sectors dedicated to non-timber forest products (NWFP) is the long-term availability of these forest products, so that a constant supply is ensured. It is important to know the provision of NWFP at the present time in order to know or estimate their future evolution. A key tool in this regard is the National Forest Inventories (NFI). Spanish NFI are a robust, objective and comparable source of information, ideal for carrying out this type of analysis.
Urtica dioica L. is an invasive plant, widespread in northern of Tunisia. This study is designed to explore the natural biological resources such as plants of agronomic and medicinal interest of Tunisia.
Evaluation of the biological activities of natural extract from some species of Portulaca grown in Tunisia
Purslane is known for her gastronomic and medicinal excellences effects. It is considered a miraculous plant with healing properties (Hwess.H et al., 2017). It is very used in traditional medicine, but not well exploited in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to raise awareness also on this wild plant, we have decided to compare many provenances of puslane, using maceration extraction.
For the most part, growing lavender in Croatia comes down to small producers who make it an extra household income. Collecting lavender is the most important part of production because it provides raw material for later processing. Manual harvesting of lavender generate its yield as only the top part of the plant with the highest concentration of essential oil is harvested. The problem with mechanical harvesting is that the machine is not so precise and cannot be adjusted to collect only the top parts of the plant.
The objective of the project is to provide preliminary information, both bibliographic and ethnological, chemical, genomic, biochemical, technical and economic, in order to assess the relevance of restarting the resin extraction of forest species other than maritime pine to supply the growing societal demand for terpene biomolecules.
This project aims to assess the effects of FSC certification on the conservation of cork oak woodlands namely how certified conservation zones (areas of lower management intervention) affect oak natural regeneration, understory shrub diversity, conservation of water streamlines and associated bird diversity. In addition, at a larger scale, the project also aims to identify geographical areas of conservation value for biodiversity and ecosystem services. Resulting information will contribute to identify target areas to implement payment for ecosystem services schemes using FSC certification as a validating tool of good management practices.
The PinusResina initiative aims to identify/establish new value chains for the competitive and safe transformation and recovery of pine resin in high value-added products, with the mission of increasing the competitiveness and sustainability of Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea forest in Portugal, in particular by enhancing resin constituents for new fine chemistry markets - resin chemical industry as the main economic factor in pine ecosystems; toxicity assessment of derived products; analyze the variability of resin composition, biotransformation and the exploitable capacity of waste resulting from its exploitation; and evaluate the sustainability of new value chains.
The main objective of this guide and its booklets for each species is to provide the pickers with knowledge of specific aromatics and medicinal plants and to serve as support for their training to adopt respectful practices guaranteeing sustainable management of the natural resources.
Its construction is based on a collection of knowledge and practices of pickers, analyzed with a group of scientists with regard to sustainable resource management (threats and renewal challenges).
The objective is also to enhance the picking profession by disseminating its knowledge and know-how.
The objective is to present GOSUBER, the supra-autonomous operational group of the European Innovation Partnership (EIP) in the area of Agricultural productivity and Sustainability, which aims to modernize debarking to make it more productive and improve occupational health and safety conditions. The group comprises 13 partners, including private companies, associations, research centres, universities and foundations.
In the last 15 years, there has been a strong interest in truffles in Greece due to high market prices and the ability to cultivate them. In most truffle plantations in Greece, however, the seedlings come from European countries such as Italy, France and Spain, since there is no domestic production. Taking into consideration the issues of imported plant’s adaptability, biodiversity protection and the risk of introducing unwdesired truffle species, we attempted to create the first Greek truffle trees with Tuber aestivum and T. melanosporum in Greek forest species such as oaks, hazelnuts, etc., in the region of Epirus (NW Greece).
Over the last 20 years, an unprecedented phenomenon of micophilia is recorded in Greece, accompanied by remarkable social, economic, cultural and research activity. The focus of this activity is Grevena, a small town of 13,500 inhabitants at an altitude of 530 meters at the northeastern end of the North Pindos National Park, in Western Macedonia. In recent years Grevena has been considered in the consciousness of the Greeks as synonymous with mushrooms and it is recognized today as the undisputed mushroom capital of the Balkans.
The Lavandula is an important species due to medicinal and aromatic properties. The local species population is suffering from Anthropozoic pressure improved by cutting and animal scuttling which made it essential to preserve the species population. Our work aims to test some ways of specie propagation.
Guide to the application of the territorial contract for resin tappers, an innovative institutional support formula for the natural resin sector
The autonomous resin tapper trade is precarious due to factors such as the seasonality of the activity, the fluctuation of resin prices, some resination campaigns are even below the profitability threshold, and the difficulty of accessing complementary sources of income.
To support the sustainability of the resin tapper job, this guide proposes a model of territorial contract tailored to this group of workers, which can be used by public administrations to supplement their income through the remuneration of specific commitments and recognition of the positive externalities generated.
Impact of postponing cork extraction on the equivalent annual annuity stands, characterized by varying productivity and cork quality
The minimum interval between 2 successive cork extractions from the same tree is fixed by law as 9 years in Portugal. Postponing cork extraction to more than 9 years is an option that results (or not) in a variation of the cork price (for the same structure of cork prices). Site productivity, cork thickness and quality and discount rate contribute to the profitability of the farm, which may be evaluated, for example, by the equivalent annual annuity (EAA). The objective is to apply the SUBER model to evaluate the influence of the cork debarking rotation period (CDR) variation, from 9 to 11 years, on the EAA of different stands by analysing the opportunity to increase the market price of extracted cork.
Impact of the production method on the gentian resource and its regeneration - The sustainable development approach of the Gentian sector
The Yellow Gentian (Gentiana lutea) is a wild plant harvested for its roots at the age of 20 to 30 years old. It is highly valued but little protected. A large part of the production is exported from the source in its raw state. The "Mission for the sustainable management of gentian resources in the Massif Central", a project promoted by the harvesters, helps the different members of the sector to organize themselves to work on good production practices and to ensure the sustainable use of the plant. This work is enhanced by a parallel project to create a "Sustainable Gentian" brand.
The aim of this work was to evaluate the outcome of PPT content between ultrasound-assisted extraction and the conventional maceration extraction techniques.
In most cases, the cultivation and production of lavender in Croatia is not a permanent job, but rather small plantations that generate additional household income. A large proportion of small producers, therefore, sell raw materials or semi-finished products resulting in lower economic profits. If they were able to produce the final product and market it then the economic profit would be higher. Increasing economic profit would certainly be a good incentive to increase production, and thus growing aromatic and medicinal plants would become a core business and would no longer be a hobby or source of additional income.
The carob tree cultivation is handicapped by the poor quality of the seedlings leaving the nursery due to the deterioration of the root system, and poor root quality is indeed a factor of failure when placing plants in the field. The objective of this work is to study the effect of root excision to address the problem of the pivotal nature of the root system and mycorrhization to improve the physiological quality of plants at the nursery stage and increase their chance of success in planting.
Assess how resin tapping can induce changes in the physical, chemical, and mechanical wood properties of the trees, thus conditioning its technological suitability for certain uses and, consequently, its commercial value.
The objective of this document is to highlight the importance of different initiatives, techniques and tools that have been presented by different organizations, both public and private, through the different transfer events that have taken place within the INCREDIBLE project. The aim is to provide a global vision of the different fields to explore in the resin sector.
Assess inter-tree competition in permanent plots established in un-debarked, even-aged stands located in Portugal by i) comparing with the self-thinning line and ii) assessing when stand density affects cork production, iii) stand structure and iv) tree relative growth rate (RGR) pattern over tree size. Spacing coefficient (SC) values < 1.25 are assumed to affect cork production; therefore, detecting when stand density is approaching this value is important. Relative spacing (RS) is easier to evaluate, being important to find the RS value equivalent to a SC = 1.25.
Aleppo pine is one of the dominant forest species in Tunisia, favoured by its great regeneration capacity, plasticity, climatic stress tolerance, and multiple products: wood, edible seeds, vegetable seed oil, essential oils from leaves. For these reasons it has been used massively as for reforestation.
But the wide geographical distribution of the species might imply variation in adaptive and productive traits. The use of genetic material well adapted to the environment and better performing allows for valorization of the resource and offers a guarantee of success for new reforestation. In this context, selection of the best provenances from comparative trials is an interesting research issue.
The cork oak forest suffers from serious problems of natural regeneration following anthropic action and overgrazing. As a result, we are witnessing continuous aging and disappearance of the oak grove. The object of the investigation is to study the variation of the size of the acorns of Quercus suber collected from different sites according to an altitudinal gradient in Kroumirie (North-West of Tunisia) in order to make the right choice of acorns for a plantation successful and adapted from cork oak.
The selection of forest species and the study of their behavior variability relative to the main environmental conditions change remains a major challenge. The aim of this study was to investigate the intraspecific variability responses of Quercus suber L. to drought conditions in order to determine the future sustainability of cork oak forest in Tunisia.
In order to formulate new regulations for updating relevant existing forest, rural and commercial legislation for the collection, certification and trade of Wild Edible Mushrooms (WEM) in Greece, an expert working group was set up in2015 by the Ministry of Environment and Energy and the Ministry of Rural Development and Food. The experts compiled a special report which reviews and evaluates European and national legislation, investigating possible similarities, differences or gaps proposing innovating ways to boost rural economies, while ensuring their sustainable harvesting</p>
The main objective of this factsheet is to help technicians and forsters to recognize, in the field, insect gall wasps of Eucalyptus species.
Electric power production from coal combustion still accounts for a great proportion of total energy production in Europe. The Public Power Corporation S.A is the largest power producer and distributor in Greece and for more than 70 years manages a great coal mining area, the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia. The coal mining procedure leads to the formation of disturbed lands in coal mines, mainly in the places of soil depositions, the implication of a viable reclamation practice of whom is very critical.
Longal Chestnut - the potential of a traditional regional variety from Portugal's Terra Fria Transmontana
Chestnuts are an extremely important product for the Portuguese region 'Terra Fria Transmontana', representing one of the most profitable crops today. Its commercialization is still done based solely on caliber, an essential characteristic to satisfy a consumer little informed about the diversity of existing varieties. Longal is a traditional regional variety from PDO Castanha da Terra Fria, with excellent characteristics for fresh consumption and the processing industry. It is important to work on its promotion with consumers and producers.
Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) cone harvesting in Portugal continues to occur trough the traditional way, that is, by specialized workers that climb the trees and remove the cones by hand using special tools.
Here we intend to document photographically this traditional knowledge, present the various tools used by cone pickers in the harvesting process and the materials used to build them. This information can be potentialy usefull in other coutries were cone harvesting is made by small, locally operating family firms.
In Portugal, traditionally, the maritime pine is the species exploited to obtain resin. The silvicultural models used assume timber as the main product and resin as the secondary product, this being a periodic and annual source of income for the owner. The description of silvicultural models that make timber and resin exploitation compatible is essential and should be based on knowledge.
Chestnut ink disease, caused by root pathogens (Phytophthora sp. ), induces dieback and mortality in sweet chestnut, C. sativa. Classical biological control can be efficient using ink resistance rootstocks that block the entrance of the fungus.
In this context, selected ink-resistant chestnut clones need to be propagated massively. Here, a method is presented for multplication and rooting clones under photoautotrophic conditions.
This factsheet aims to present the mechanical harvesting option and the productivity monitorization done in umbrella pine stands harvested in both ways (manual and mechanically) in the last 17 years, located in Chamusca, Portugal. 5,000 m2 sample plot were installed in stand planted in the 1960s.
Medicinal sage is an native plant species of Dalmatia spread throughout the Mediterranean. In the Republic of Croatia along the entire coast, as well as in the entire Dalmatia. Sage is first and foremost a medicinal plant, but it is also used as a spice. In Dalmatia, sage was used long before the classical period, in the nature its leaves were collected from which essential oil was obtained, and the beginnings of cultivation date to the early 20th century on the island of Hvar. Today in Dalmatia there is no production of dried leaves and essential sage oil, except to a lesser extent on Hvar and for personal needs.
MERCASETAS and MERCATRUFAS are fundamentally tools for the promotion and commercialization of the mycological resource and an opportunity to approach and encourage the consumption of these products among the attending public.
MERCATRUFAS is a market for Black Truffles (Tuber melanosporum) with a mycological character, being the meeting point between the truffle grower and the final consumer, who is guaranteed about the origin and quality of all the truffles with strict quality controls.
MERCASETAS is a new concept of market of mycological products, mainly oriented to the tourism whose objective is to dynamize the commercial activity of the sector, guaranteeing the origin, the traceability and the quality of the product, promoting the agro-alimentary innovation, improving the environmental and gastronomic education of the consumer.
Greece was until recently considered as a country where mushroom consumption was limited to few species per region. Mushroom were for most Greeks an occasional food, linked to poverty, the "meat of the poor", as they used to call them, that helped rural populations to survive the years of WWII. However, over the last 20 years the picture has changed dramatically as mushrooms are nowadays at the focus of a broader movement, which integrates individual research artistic-creative and entrepreneurial actions related to mushrooms to an activity with a strong social character.
The main objective of this application is to provide companies in the mycological sector with a traceability management tool for the purchase of wild mushrooms and fresh truffles from the collector or producer. To identify one more agent in the traceability of the product, by including the collector of wild mushrooms and the space where they have been collected, favoring the control systems in food safety.
This work aims the valorization of myrtle fruits through the determination of its mineral composition. Such a study is important to highlight the nutritional value of this NWFP.
Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) is one of the most drought-tolerant pine species and it is distributed over large drought-prone Mediterranean regions. The determination of the water balance of the soil-crop-climate and its fluctuation is difficult to achieve, due to the spatial variation in site conditions (Schiller and Cohen, 1998). The objectives of this study are to (1) estimate crop water requirements (ETc) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of Tunisian Aleppo pine and (2) study the impact of climate change on water balance, using the WEAP-MABIA Module (Yates et al.,2005a; 2005b; Jabloun and Sahli, 2012) based on the FAO Irrigation and Drainage publication 56 (Allen et al., 1998).
Eucalyptus is an enormous and fascinating genus with over 700 species. Most of Eucalyptus species are known as aromatic plants and with medicinal and melliferous uses. Therefore, it’s important to valorize and ensure a continuous regeneration of Eucalyptus species. In this prospect, the main focus of this work was to evaluate seeds viability used to regenerate forests and in order to elevate its production of NWFP.
The traditional method of resin tapping is a very time-consuming activity since it requires the resin tapper to visit each tree every 10 to 15 days during the season. In order to develop more efficient methodologies, the results of the first experiments carried out using the new drilling technique are presented.
Describe the main contents of the recent Italian fiscal law on NWFPs, approved at the end of 2018. This fiscal reform aimed to simplify the fiscal system of NWFPs pickers, in order to contrast the diffusion of the informal market, contributing to increase the transparency and support the traceability of some specific value chains.
With the fluctuation of truffle market, the prices of truffles for restaurants and/or for end consumers can be very variable. This implies the use of less expensive truffle based additions, such as truffle oils and tartufatas (mixture or mushrooms and truffle, used as side dishes, or as a main ingredient for truffle based pates and sauces). Since the odor of fresh truffles are volatile and more mild than their replacements (truffle oils), the objective of this text is to educate the end consumer on differences between the raw truffle material and processed ingredients found in grocery stores.
The Periploca angustifolia is a native shrub widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. This species is threatened because of its medicinal properties, its pastoral interest and its role in the fight against soil erosion. The main objective of this work is to master the germination and multiplication techniques of Periploca angustifolia L.
Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction and study of biological activities of Pinus brutia needles
The aim of this work was to enhance the extraction technique of pine needles active molecules to valorize the non used needles.
Cork is a non-timber forest product of great importance due to its excellent characteristics in terms of insulation, elasticity and sustainability. Spain is the second world producer of cork after Portugal. Traditionally, debarking is carried out at intervals ranging from 9 to 14 years, depending on the area. However, the growth of the cork is not constant over the life of the tree, so uneven debarking intervals may be advisable. Despite its economic importance, no silvicultural schedules exist which are based on optimizing the profitability of these stands. This factsheet provides guidelines for the management of cork oak stands when the aim is to optimize economic profitability.
The objectives of this participative research program are:
1: Select surviving European chestnut trees within strong impacted areas by the ink disease
2: Evaluate their resistance against Phytophthora in laboratory, and verify their belonging to sweet chestnut, the species Castanea sativa.
3: Use the individuals showing the best resistance capacities against ink disease (“elite trees”) as seeds producers in seed orchards.
The expected results are:
- Reconquest and renewal of the actually declining chestnut orchards
- Decrease of production cost due to nuersery seedling production.
- Higher genetic diversity in the chestnut plantations.
The best option for highly atomised sectors is to have a common positioning that brings together as many products as possible, by creating an umbrella brand that provides added value. PEFC Spain enables forest certification for wild products by means of grouping all producers and forest products managed under sustainability criteria under a recognized brand. This enhances an economic activities compatible with forest conservation and undertaken by thousands of people in Spanish rural areas.
The PEFC certification for wild food chains of custody (CoC) can help to improve the regulation of their use and commercialisation and the recognition of sectors that at present are still partly non-formal.
The aim of this work was to valorize Arbutus unedo by its regeneration in vivo and in vitro, also by characterizing of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of leaves and fruits in order to evaluate and improve the potential value of this plant.
We have projected for the ﬁrst time to study the impact of geographic variation and environmental conditions on the chemical composition, the antioxidant activities as well as the antitumor activity of two of Pinus halepensis Mill. Oils provenances, distributed under different ecological conditions in Tunisia.
The objective was to evaluate the loss of moisture in pine cone during the storage after harvest, comparing the storage inside a warehouse or just under a shed. This information is intended to support the producer in deciding when to sell, at the beginning, during or at the end of the commercialization campaign, taking into account not only the market price / kg but also the weight loss of the pine cone due to the loss of moisture.
The objective is to analyze the possibility of modeling the kernel weight from biometric and morphological parameters of the pine nuts from Pinus pinea, measured through X – ray and image analysis. The overall objective is to support the definition of a pine cone quality assessment methodology at the stand/ farm level in order to provide the landowners with tools for pine cone commercialization and increase by this mean the market transparency.
This factsheet aims to highlight the interannual variation of the pine cone dimensions and present some factors that explain it, in order to contribute for the future establishment of silvicultural measures than can lead to a decrease in that variation, by promoting the conditions for bigger pine cones or selecting more suitable Forest Reproduction Materials (FRM) .
• Establish, by compilation of data obtained from collectors and producers, a list of plant species picked for artisanal or industrial production chains,
• Referencing these species according to their validated scientific name,
• Provide some indicators of the risks that could weigh on these species.
In order to ensure the sustainability of the exploitation of pine resin and to guarantee that it is guided by good management practices - promoting the vitality of pine forests and forest protection practices, contributing with relevant annual revenues - it was considered necessary, in Portugal, to define a legal regime, simplifying and concentrating all the rules in a single legal document. This legislation is an essential knowledge tool for authorities and economic agents, focusing on the production, exploitation and dynamics of resin from the forest to the industrial processing unit.
Cork oak ecosystems have been experiencing a serious decline in the last decades attributed to different causes, including wildfires. After fire trees may become particularly vulnerable to forest pests, which may further affect the vigor of surviving trees and give rise to massive dispersing offspring affecting surrounding areas, but this was rarely assessed in Mediterranean oak ecosystems. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the presence and dynamics of xylophagous insects on cork oak forests following fire in central Portugal.
The project objective was to identify chemically different Rosmarinus officinalis wild populations present in the Spanish geography in order to be able to choose those that present a higher essential oil concentration with an interesting chemical composition for the industry uses.
Identify these wild populations is the starting point for initiating any breeding program to obtain commercial varieties that can be put into large scale cultivation to satisfy quantity and quality industrial demand.
A method is resented to reduce the severity of cankers caused by chestnut blight, Cryphonectria parasitica. This pathogenic fungus penetrates and necroses cortical tissues, which provoke mortality of adult trees aerial parts and failure of grafting.
In the 1970s, French researchers developed a biological control method using hypovirulent strains of the fungus. Since then, a research programme at INRA conducted with several organisations (Chambers of Agriculture, Union of Chestnut production Associations, the Forest Health Department) aims at clarifying and improving thecontrol methods.
The objective is to present the different initiatives that exist at the national level in Spain to characterize resin production and the potential of this resource. These initiatives, framed within the Spanish Forest Statistics defined in the Spanish Forest Law 43/2003, include both production statistics and characterization of the forest resources that either produce or could potentially produce resin.
Describe the key elements constituting the natural resin sector in a historical resinous region, underlining the social, environmental and economic importance of resin harvesting, and its potential as an instrument of local development and environmental conservation.
The success story of the company Santiago Perea S.L. in the processing of pine nuts in Andalusia (Southern Spain) is presented here. The commitment of this company to innovation since its creation in 1950 has led to its outstanding positioning in the sector. The main milestones in the history of the company and the most notable elements of its business model are described below.
Seasonal variation of antioxidative molecules and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in Tunisia
In light of the great global interest in PAM as a source of active ingredients. So, it is important to investigate the impact of seasonal variation on Rosmarinus officinalis, Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis by evaluating of some biochemical responses in three sites Mount of Zaghouan (DZ), Mount of Mansour (DM) and Mount of Sarej (DS) and to compare their behavior in the three seasons (spring, summer and autumn).
Seasonal variation of photosynthetic parameters of Erica Multiflora and Cistus monspeliensis in natural Tunisian Aleppo pine forest
Understanding and quantify the role played by undergrowth in the resilience and adaptation to climate change of the pine forest in Tunisia, by comparing the state of vegetation of the undergrowth species of a pine forest Aleppo at different bioclimatic stages in the southern Mediterranean of Tunisia (Mount of Zaghouan (upper subhumid climate with mild and temperate winters), Mount of Mansour (semi-arid lower to upper arid) and Mount of Sarej (semi-arid upper semi-arid with cold and temperate winter variations)).
The Montpellier maple (Acer monspessulanum L.) is a Mediterranean and West Asian species considered in Tunisia as rare with only three locations. The ecological importance of the species as a broadleaf and its effects on its natural ecosystem leads us to get a clear idea of the best way of propagation using seeds.
The Myrtus communis L. is an endemic species appreciated traditionally for its medicinal and aromatic properties. Improving the multiplication and propagation methods of the common myrtle is the most important objective of this paper. The work was held to conserve the species and its decreasing populations due to the lake of management, overcutting and Anthropozoic pressure in its location area.
Selection of pine species in Tunisia: Result of the comparative species trials of Souiniet and Djebel Abderrahmen Arboretums
Faced with changes and in the absence of regeneration, the natural forest formations in the North of Tunisia are experiencing serious problems of degradation. The use of pines as alternative species would be a possible and advantageous solution, but the choice should be given in priority to fast-growing species, ecologically well adapted and economically profitable.
The main objective is the promotion of wild mushrooms originating in the forest areas of Castile and León region, the incorporation of added value to labelled mycological products through the certification of qualities specified in the regulations of use and the transfer to the consumer of their food safety.
The Decree-Law nº 181/2015, defines the legal regime for the resin activity and circulation of pine resin in Continental Portugal. The regime requires prior notification to the Portuguese Institute for Nature Conservation and Forestry (ICNF) of resin tapping, resin import and export, resin transportation and storage and resin used by 1st transformation industry. The communication is made online through the Resin Information System (SiResin):
There are several requirements and experiences for a successfull graft, that are reviewed in the following from a practical point of view.
In coastal regions like the Portuguese Alentejo or Catalonian Empordà, grafting is usually performed directly in the field on young plantations, by specialised teams of skilled forest workers. In-nursery grafting on container-raised rootstocks is an alternative, not discussed here, for harsher climate conditions where in situ grafting has a low success rate due to unpredictable spring weather (rain, wind, or late frost in some years, early heat waves in others).
Several handbooks and guides are available online for further consultation.
The objective of the present study is to better understand the relationship between tree characteristics and cone production of Mediterranean stone pine. This was achieved by quantifying the gain in using detailed crown metrics in estimating cone production at individual tree level (number of cones per tree and average cone weight). Models based on traditional variables (tree size and stand characteristics) were compared to models that relied on crown metrics extracted from TLS data. The resulting models should help owners and managers to better predict cone production.
Solve the problem of the fragility of oak acorns used for reforestation and animal feed by improving the process of their conservation for a period close to a year.
The aim of the project is to develop an industrially producible bio-sourced varnish based on gum rosin and linseed oil, inspired by the ancient know-how of the violin maker Antonio Stradivari (1644-1737). The difficulty is to meet the specifications of an industrial manufacture while achieving high performance of the varnish.
The wide potential of resin acids as bioactive agents could be considered as very promoting products for new applications of the natural forms and their derivatives.
The objective of the present investigation was mainly focused on the assessment of the biological performance of the resin. Therefore, the evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the three Tunisian pine species Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea, and Pinus halepensis were conducted in order to control four pathogenic bacteria species.
The exploitation of pine forests in Tunisia which covered up to 50% of the total forest area could contribute and generate additional income sources for forest populations. Until now, the resin extraction knowledge was very limited and outdated. In the present study, the assessment of the biological performance of the resin was the main objective in order to detect the antioxidant activity of three pine species in the Tunisian forest.
Croatia is a world famous destination for its truffle collection in wild and the truffle sector is well developed. However, although Croatia is a small country, truffle production is in fact concentrated only in the Istrian region and has not been developed in the rest of the country. In other parts of the country, very few people are involved in collecting truffles (summer truffles) and this is actually more of a hobby for them than a source of income. Therefore, it was important to conduct a survey to determine where summer truffle could be found and in what quantities, and the results of the survey would give us a clearer picture of the possibility of developing the truffle sector in other parts of the country.
The standardisation study facilitates the inclusion of wood from resin tapped pines in the Spanish standard UNE 56544 (Visual classification of sawn wood for structural use. Coniferous wood), in order to favour its use and marketing as structural wood.
Simultaneously, the study compares the physical-mechanical properties of resinated Pinus pinaster wood against non-resin wood under the same normative parameters (UNE 56544), so that the technical buyer can evaluate which product is the most suitable for the intended application.
AFC is the French Association of professionals wild plants pickers. It was created in 2011 to bring together professionals of wild plants picking and to promote this profession.
It defends sustainable commercial harvesting and a responsible profession.
It wishes to ensure the representativeness of the pickers with other operators in the sectors and the public authorities.
In addition to their traditional local use in human and animal food, the fruits of the carob tree have a high commercial value in industrial transformation. The demand for fruits and seeds is growing significantly and their commercial value is increasing. It is also an undemanding species, since it is found in various bioclimatic levels (humid, subhumid, semi-arid and arid) and on poor and skeletal soils. The objective of this work is to explore a panel of varieties to be characterized by describing the tree, fruits, and seeds in an illustrated form.
The co-management of forest resources in Tunisia: A new approach for sustainable development in the sector of AMP
In Tunisia all forest areas are public: in order to use forest products, producers and firms should go through a tendering system subject to Article 18 of the Tunisian forestry code, organized each year by the Tunisian Forestry authority. Small firms and the local populations are facing many difficulties to use available resources legally. The DGF is promoting a new form of sustainable management for forest resources: Concluding contracts between the organized local community and the administration to improve their livelihood and to protect forestal areas.
The humidity of cork has always been a parameter considered in its commercialization, and is usually expressed as a percentage discount on the total cork quantity. Percentual moisture discounts are usually incorrectly applied, as they are applied directly to the quantity of cork. The same discount applied to cork with different moisture's content can translate into discounts in quantity of cork and not water.
This factsheet intents to inform the cork producers for the relevance of cork sampling for moisture content determination in order to establish the humidity discount in the cork business.
The influence of silvicultural practices on resin production: stand density, tree diameter, and use of controlled fire
Some aspects contribute to the increase of resin tapping costs and, hence, to the reduction of resin yield, namely: the limitation on the diameter of the trees to be tapped imposed by the Portuguese legislation; low stand densities; the necessary control of understory vegetation. Hence, it is essential to evaluate if and how some pine forest management parameters affect the total production of pine resin so it can be increased through silvicultural practices and, thus, compensate for the rise in some costs associated with the resin activity.
This work aims to promote beekeeping activity in rural areas where eucalyptus can play a leading role as nectar species. This objective necessarily involves the identification of eucalyptus species of melliferous interest and the selection of the most successful species in terms of abundance of flowering, its duration, and its spreading throughout the year.
The study advances in the socio-labour reality knowledge of the Spanish workers dedicated to the resin extraction, and in the group perception about aspects related to entrepreneurship and sectorial problems.
To this end, three key aspects are elucidated:
- The definition of the typical resin workers profiles, and the socio-labour situations that characterise each one of them.
- The study of the key factors for the incorporation and the abandonment of the resin activity.
- The sounding of sectorial or professional aspects that the workers consider most relevant to be addressed at present.
Aleppo pine seeds (commonly called Zgougou) derive all their originality and nobility from the fact that they are consumed by Tunisians as part of their cooking habits. Zgougou is considered one of the most interesting NWFP due to socio-economic role and commercial value. Aleppo pine seed oil can be extracted as for nutrition, or for medicinal and cosmetic uses.
The present work studies the conditions of exploitation of seeds in the forest, the yield of vegetable oil extracted, its physicochemical qualities and the possibilities of valorizing the press cake obtained after the oil extraction.
Estimate reproduction cork thickness as a criterion to examine the commercial value and to fit a non-linear model for predicting cork weight to guide the forest decision makers toward a reasonable harvest.
The objective is to guide forest decision-makers towards a reasonable cork harvest by:
• examining the thickness of cork as a criterion for estimating commercial value
• evaluating the intensity of the debarking operation on the tree
• establishing a non-linear model for predicting cork weight.
Threats and concerns in the management of stone pine in Portugal: insights from a survey among stakeholders
The forest area of stone pine, Pinus pinea, has increased significantly in Portugal in the last 30 years, following the same trend of other Mediterranean countries. At the same time, forest stakeholders report losses in cone production and yield and question on the best management practices to face a already changing climate.
During a Science to Practice event entitled "Stone pine and pine nuts: more knowledge for a better management" held in Lisbon in October 2019, we conducted a survey were we were able to assess the stakeholders' concerns with the pine nut value chain and identify research priorities.
Poisoning is mostly the consequence of confusion with other edible mushroom species but, in some cases also, of poisonous species collection by people who are totally unaware of the existence of toxic mushrooms therefore not asking for specialized advice before consuming them. Several tools to reduce the number of poisoning by prevention are presented in this factsheet :
- Prevention tools deployed by ANSES (National Agency for Health Security)
- Mobile applications for mushroom recognition
The subject of this research is aromatic, medicinal and spicy cultures as part of cultural heritage and tradition. The research goal is to examine the possibilities of developing cultural, rural, health and wellness tourism based on cultural heritage. All these forms of tourism are developing rapidly because they have an important economic, social, cultural, educational and scientific role. Istria as part of Croatia belong to the Mediterranean area, the cradle of aromatic, medicinal and spicy cultures that can significantly contribute to the creation of new tourist attractions and product innovations.
In the past, herbs were the only cure for the disease, and learning about herbs was based only on human experience. They found the medicine in their environment, where they learned to recognize the plants and to determine how to use it. Knowledge and experience have been passed down from generation to generation, so today there are many who, thanks to the knowledge and experience of their loved ones, have become successful users and growers of medicinal plants, although unfortunately some of the knowledge about medicinal plants has probably fallen into oblivion, given that no one ever wrote it down.
Reducing the amount of damages in the cork oak forest is very important in terms of the sustainability of this ecosystem. Although some of the wounds may have a natural origin (e.g. lightning), most of them have a human source linked to the management operations. The cicatrisation rate of the wounds differs from tree to tree, according to wound size, the tree vitality and the time of the year (5). The establishment of simple recommendations for the forest managers to identify the potential risks associated with the operations and consequences of these wounds can contribute to increase the cork oak vitality.
Tunisian Salvia officinalis essential oils: Variations regarding plant organs, harvest season and drying conditions
This study presents an assessment of essential oils amounts and quality obtained from Tunisian Salvia officinalis and its variations regarding the plant organs, the harvest season and the plant's drying process conditions. Three drying processes were tested, natural air drying, hot air convective drying at two temperature 40 and 60°C and microwave drying at 218 W.
Ziziphus jujuba, known as Chinese jujube, is a highly valued plant native to China. Three species are known in Tunisia: Ziziphus lotus, Ziziphus spina-christi and Ziziphus jujuba. The Ziziphus jujuba also known as “anneb” is the most popular specie. This tree (Figure 1), with 10 cm of length and 50 cm of diameter, offer a delicious read fruit (jujube) that was consumed fresh, dried and processed (jams, loaf, cakes, etc.). The aim of this study was to attempt, for the first time, the chemical compositions of Z. jujuba fruits from Tunisia.
- Evaluate the influence of tree size, stand characteristics, debarking coefficients and climatic variables on cork thickness and its evolution between consecutive cork extraction operations, i.e. between successive cork growth periods (cgp). Cork growth is assessed using the cgi, defined as the radial width of the first eight complete years of cork growth after stripping.
- Assess the impact of the increase in debarking intensity on cork growth. Debarking intensity is quantified by the cork debarking coefficient – the ratio of the vertical debarking height to the perimeter at breast height, measured over cork.